Which Conditions the New Gut Health Studies Cover
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the associations between vitamin D and IBS.
- The meta-analysis included 12 studies with 1,331 IBS patients.
- Vitamin D deficiency was associated with a 1.8X increased risk of IBS, and treatment with vitamin D led to:
- Improved quality of life
- No change in IBS symptoms severity
A study aimed to determine the microbial difference between IBS-Diarrhea (IBS-D) overlapping with/without Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO), and to analyze the underlying mechanism of its sensitivity to Rifaximin.
- A total of 176 participants were enrolled in the study.
- 127 were IBS-D patients.
- 49 were healthy controls.
- The 127 IBS-D patients all performed a lactulose SIBO breath test.
- Both SIBO-positive and negative IBS-D patients were treated with Rifaximin (400mg BID).
- Compared to the IBS-D negative breath test patients, the IBS-D positive breath test patients treated with Rifaximin led to greater improvements in:
- Abdominal pain
- Bowel movement satisfaction
- Bristol stool form
Children’s GI Conditions
A systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to understand the global incidence of the adverse events associated with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in children over the past 20 years.
- The systematic review and meta-analysis included 18 studies featuring 681 children
- FMT led to:
- 86% overall efficacy in children with GI symptoms
- 91% efficacy in children with C. diff infections
- 27.7% mild to moderate side effects (abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, etc)
- 0.9% severe side effects
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
This study further explored the effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) supplementation on fatigue in patients with inactive IBD.
- 166 IBD patients experiencing fatigue were randomized to placebo or 5-HTP (precursor to serotonin.
- After 2 months, the 5-HTP group had:
- Increased serum 5-HTP and serotonin
- No improvement in fatigue, anxiety, or depression
A systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of fiber supplementation at improving chronic constipation.
- The systematic review and meta-analysis included 16 randomized controlled trials with 1,251 participants with chronic constipation, randomized to:
- Control group (maltodextrin, yogurt, milk, apple juice)
- Fiber (psyllium, pectin, inulin, guar gum, galactooligosaccharides, wheat bran)
- Compared to control, fiber supplementation led to:
- Greater response rate
- Increased stool frequency
- Worse flatulence
- Improved stool consistency
- Constipation was most improved with:
- Psyllium and pectin
- Fiber doses >10 g/day
- ≥4 weeks of treatment
A systematic review and network meta-analysis were performed to clarify if probiotics or Rifaximin are more effective in the prevention of travelers’ diarrhea.
- The systematic review and network meta-analysis included 17 randomized controlled trials featuring healthy participants traveling to other countries.
- These participants were randomized to:
- Placebo or no treatment
- Probiotics/prebiotics (e.g. Strep thermophilus, galactooligosaccharides (GOS), S. boulardii, and sodium butyrate)
- Compared to placebo, both interventions reduced the risk for traveler’s diarrhea.
- Of the probiotic/prebiotic therapies, the following, listed from most to least superior, provided the greatest reduction for travelers’ diarrhea:
- Sodium butyrate
- Lacto/bifido + Strep thermophilus
- S. boulardii
A study assessed the efficacy of a moderately low FODMAP diet on persistent symptoms in treated celiac patients.
- 70 celiac-disease patients in remission with persistent GI symptoms, currently on a gluten-free diet were randomized to:
- Usual gluten-free diet
- Low FODMAP + gluten-free diet
- After 1 month, the addition of a low FODMAP diet led to greater reductions in:
- GI symptom score
- Abdominal pain
Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO)
A study analyzed the mental state and gastrointestinal complaints of patients with SIBO in relation to tryptophan metabolism and Rifaximin treatment.
- The study assessed 120 participants with anxiety and depression with SIBO and IBS-Diarrhea (IBS-D) and SIBO and IBS-Constipation (IBS-C).
- All 120 participants were treated with Rifaximin (1,200 milligrams per day for 10 days for 3 months).
- After 3 rounds, treatment with Rifaximin led to improvements in:
A study tested the associations between intestinal permeability biomarkers and food-specific IgG antibodies.
- 111 adults, with and without gastrointestinal symptoms had biomarkers and food-specific IgG antibodies measured via ELISA.
- Common food IgG antibodies, including eggs, wheat, and dairy, were:
- Associated with increased intestinal permeability markers (anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-occludin IgG and IgA antibodies)
- Not associated with anti-vinculin or anti-CdtB antibodies
- There was no difference in IgG food antibody levels or intestinal permeability markers when comparing symptomatic and asymptomatic participants
Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
A systematic review assessed the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) and hypermobility spectrum disorders (HSD).
- Literature relevant to the gastrointestinal system and hypermobile Ehlers–Danlos syndrome was systematically searched, critically appraised, and summarized.
- Compared to those without hEDS/HSD, those with hEDS/HSD have a higher prevalence of:
- Abdominal pain
- Postprandial fullness
Acute and Recurrent Gout
A pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of washed microbiota transplantation (WMT) on serum uric acid levels, symptoms, and the intestinal barrier function in patients with acute and recurrent gout.
- The study featured 11 patients with gout who were treated with WMT.
- WMT led to reductions in:
- Frequency and duration of gout flares
- Uric acid
- Serum endotoxins