Does your gut need a reset?

Yes, I'm Ready

Do you want to start feeling better?

Yes, Where Do I Start?

Do you want to start feeling better?

Yes, Where Do I Start?

What Are Probiotics? Your Guide to Healthy Gut Bacteria

Probiotics Defined

Key Takeaways:
  • Probiotics are often referred to as “good bacteria” for your gut.
  • This good bacteria can help to restore and maintain balance in your gut microbiota, a complex ecosystem in your digestive system.
  • Supporting a healthy gut microbiome with probiotics can help prevent or heal from issues like SIBO, IBS, and leaky gut.
  • The gut microbiota also has further reaching implications like impacting brain health, mood, thyroid health, and immunity.
  • Though diet can be a great source of probiotics, it can be difficult to obtain the dosages that have been shown to be effective in research, which is why dietary supplements may be the optimal choice. 

Probiotics, often dubbed “friendly bacteria,” are live microorganisms that, when consumed in adequate amounts, provide a wide range of health benefits. This is because they help balance the gut microbiota—a remarkable ecosystem in the digestive system that contains trillions of microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other microbes. 

By balancing the microbiota with probiotics, the ripple effect it has on your health is huge (even bigger than previously thought with new research I see coming in every year). 

So let’s explore what probiotics are, the good they do for your health, and how to select probiotic-rich foods and supplements that can help optimize gut health and beyond.

Probiotic Snapshot

Probiotics are live microorganisms that live in your digestive tract and confer health benefits when consumed. And while they can be obtained through foods (sauerkraut, kombucha, miso, kimchi, etc.), the most concentrated way to get them is via probiotic supplements.  

What Are Probiotics Good For?

Probiotics are important for maintaining the health of your microbiome, the complex ecosystem we talked about, that includes around 300 to 500 bacterial species. [1] These microorganisms perform critical functions for your digestion, hormones, nervous system, and immune system. [1]

The balance of healthy and harmful bacteria in your gut has far-reaching consequences for your health. Gut dysbiosis is an imbalance of microorganisms in your digestive system, much like a garden overrun with weeds. Dysbiosis doesn’t just lead to digestive symptoms, but it can negatively impact mood, energy, skin, joint health, metabolism, sleep, immune function, hormone balance, thyroid function, and more.

The good bacteria in probiotics can help to restore and maintain balance in your gut microbiota — the world of bacteria in your gut — and thus, it can help with many different symptoms and conditions.   

Why We Need Probiotics More Than Ever

People in traditional societies had far more exposure to live bacteria than most of us do today. Natural childbirth, breastfeeding, contact with animals, contact with soil, and consumption of whole and fermented foods all helped to maintain a diverse human microbiome.

Our environment is much more sterile today. We routinely diminish our exposure to bacteria through Cesarean birth, antibiotics, and the use of antibacterial soaps and cleaners. Unhealthy diets that are low in fiber and high in sugar compound the problem. Even a sedentary lifestyle and poor sleep habits can negatively impact your beneficial bacteria. [2, 3]

In today’s world, bacterial imbalances in the digestive tract are the norm.  

How Do Probiotics Help You?

Probiotics help to improve the balance of organisms in your gut, [4, 5, 6] reduce overzealous immune system activity, [7, 8] and reduce inflammation in the gut and elsewhere in the body. [4, 9] Probiotics are also antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic and help to eliminate bad bugs.

When you understand the connections between your gut health, your immune system, inflammation, and nutrient absorption, it’s easier to appreciate the far-reaching impact of your gut health.

Immune System
Your small intestine contains the largest density of immune cells in your body.  This is one reason why the health of your digestive tract and the health of your immune system are so closely linked. If your gut bacteria are unbalanced, your immune system may be chronically activated into an overzealous response. [10, 11]

Inflammation
An overzealous immune system produces inflammation in the gut and elsewhere in the body. Chronic inflammation is a major factor in many health conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, [12] and cardiovascular disease. [13, 14]

Nutrient Absorption
Inflammation also damages the lining of the digestive system. [15] This can impair nutrient absorption. If you eat a healthy diet but don’t absorb nutrients well, this can be similar to eating an unhealthy diet.

What Are Prebiotics and Synbiotics?

Prebiotics are the fiber-rich foods that feed gut bacteria. If your gut is in good health, a diet rich in prebiotic foods can be very beneficial. However, it’s important to note that prebiotics may cause problems for some. That’s because prebiotics also feed bad gut bacteria.

Some patients with gut issues may actually need to restrict their intake of prebiotics. The low FODMAP diet is designed to restrict prebiotic foods and can be very helpful for patients with IBS and IBD. [16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22]

Synbiotics are dietary supplements that combine probiotics and prebiotics. While this is great for some, a synbiotic supplement may not be the best probiotic choice for people with digestive issues.

Probiotic Foods

Diet can be a great source of probiotics. However, through diet alone, it can be difficult to obtain the dosages that have been shown to be effective in research. For therapeutic doses of probiotics, dietary supplements may be a better choice.  

Here are some of the probiotic species and dosages found in probiotic foods.

FoodSpeciesAmountEquivalent Dose
SauerkrautLeuconostoc mesenteroides
Lactobacillus brevis
Pediococcus pentosaceus
Lactobacillus plantarum
3 billion CFUper cup1/8 capsuleLacto-Bifido Blend Probiotic
Yogurt [23, 24]Lactobacillus acidophilus
Streptococcus thermophilus
Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus
2.5 billion CFUper  cup1/10 capsuleLacto-Bifido Blend Probiotic
Lacto-fermented Pickles [25, 26]Lactobacillus casei
Lactobacillus rhamnosus
Lactobacillus plantarum
Lactobacillus brevis
1.3 billion CFUper pickle1/20 capsuleLacto-Bifido Blend Probiotic
Kefir [27]Lactobacillus brevis
Lactobacillus acidophilus
Lactobacillus caseiLactococcus lactis
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
2.5 billion CFUper cup1/10 capsuleLacto-Bifido Blend Probiotic
Kimchi [28Weissella koreensis
Lactobacillus sakeiLactobacillus graminis
Weissella cibaria
Leuconostoc mesenteroides
11.5 billion CFUper ½ cup1/2 capsuleLacto-Bifido Blend Probiotic

Benefits of Probiotics for Gut Health

Probiotics are best known for their ability to help with various gut health conditions. A large volume of research supports this. 

Probiotics Support These Conditions
High level of scientific support for:
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Gas, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD)
Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis 
Mood
Depression and Anxiety 
Gut Imbalances
SIBO, H. pylori, candida/fungus, pathogens, antibiotic associated diarrhea
Leaky Gut
Gut damage and permeability
Infections
Vaginal infections, urinary tract infections, tooth decay  
Limited, but encouraging, scientific support for:
Cognition
Cognitive function, brain fog
Hormonal Health
Thyroid health, PCOS, endometriosis, bone density
Allergies
Dairy intolerance, seasonal allergies
Autoimmune Conditions
Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis 
Metabolic Health
Blood sugar, cholesterol, blood pressure, weight loss
Sleep
Sleep quality and Disruption

Here are some of the research highlights:

  • Use of Probiotics can be helpful for symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which include bloating, constipation, loose stools, diarrhea, abdominal pain, gas and fatigue. [29, 30, 31, 32, 33]
  • Probiotics have been CLEARLY shown to be effective in treating small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), both in improving symptoms and improving lab values. [34, 35, 36]
  • Probiotics help to repair the intestinal lining in leaky gut syndrome. [37, 38, 39, 40]
  • Probiotics can be very helpful in treating bacterial, fungal and parasitic gut infections. [41, 42, 43, 44]
  • Probiotics have been found to be effective for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease [45] and ulcerative colitis. [45, 46, 47]
  • 79% of studies reported reduction in reflux and related symptoms (heartburn, indigestion, regurgitation, nausea and gas) after probiotic treatment. [48]
  • Two recent research reviews concluded that probiotics are helpful for constipation, significantly increasing stool frequency and increasing gut transit time. [49]
  • Probiotics work to reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea. [50, 51, 52]

Benefits of Probiotics for Non-Digestive Conditions

What Are Probiotics? Your Guide to Healthy Gut Bacteria - deae4267 3935 4240 a2ec 5a2490aedeab

Probiotics aren’t just good for digestive health. Research has found that probiotics are effective for a number of non-digestive conditions. Probiotics:

  • Decrease the incidence of respiratory tract infections in children, [53] urinary tract infections [54] and vaginal infections in women. [55, 56]
  • Decrease oral pathogens that cause cavities, gingivitis and periodontal disease and may be beneficial for maintenance of oral health https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16827601. [57]
  • Have been associated with significant improvements in depression. [58, 59, 60] Research also shows some anti-anxiety effect from probiotics, but the data isn’t conclusive. [61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66]
  • Can dampen symptoms of stress in healthy adults. [67, 68, 69, 70]
  • Help with sleep quality [71, 72, 73, 74, 75]
  • Can help with lactose intolerance [76] and gluten intolerance. [77, 78]
  • Can improve seasonal allergies [79, 80] and may prevent or reduce the formation of allergies in children. [81]
  • Have improved cognition in patients with Alzheimer’s, [82, 83] bipolar disorder, [84] and Fibromyalgia. [85] Probiotics may help IBS patients reduce symptoms of brain fog. [86
  • Can reduce the need for thyroid medication and reduce fatigue in hypothyroid patients. [87]
  • May reduce the risk of autoimmunity for children at risk of type 1 diabetes when taken in infancy. [88]
  • Helped MS patients to reduce disability, lower insulin resistance, and reduce inflammatory markers. [89]
  • May help to improve rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. However not all studies show improvements. [90, 91, 92]
  • Can help with skin conditions. Topical probiotic treatments were effective for treating acne. [93, 94] Probiotic supplements also led to improvements in dermatitis. [95, 96]
  • May have benefits for babies, including, less colic and irritability, less diarrhea, fewer spitting episodes, and fewer respiratory infections. [97]
  • May help women during pregnancy to have fewer incidences of gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, excessive weight gain, and vaginal bacteria infections. [98]
  • May also lower infant death rates in babies born to moms who take probiotics during pregnancy. [99]

Simplifying Probiotics 

There are a dizzying number of probiotic strains available in supplement products. However, here’s a trick to keep things simple: most every probiotic can be organized into one of these three categories: 

CATEGORY 1CATEGORY 2CATEGORY 3
Lactobacillus & bifidobacterium species predominated blendsSaccharomyces Boulardii (a healthy fungus)Soil-Based Probiotics using various bacillus species 
These are the most well-researched, with over 500 trials assessing their validity.  These live microorganisms are also known as lactic-acid producing probiotic bacteria.  They typically do not colonize the host but do improve the health of the host.The second most researched probiotic, with over 100 studies.  Saccharomyces boulardii (S. Boulardi for short) is not a normal part of human microbiota, meaning it does not colonize us but does improve the health of the host.The third most researched category of probiotics is soil-based probiotics. This group has roughly 14 clinical trials evaluating their effectiveness. This category is also known as spore-forming bacteria. This category of probiotic can colonize the host. [100]

You don’t need to try every probiotic product on the market. Instead, use one quality formula from each category, and take them all together.  Wait a few weeks and reevaluate your symptoms. If you are seeing some level of improvement, keep going. If not, you can discontinue probiotic therapy and don’t need to try a different formula. 

In my clinical experience, taking all three categories together has been the difference between people experiencing minimal results or impressive results.

What are probiotics: Three categories of probiotics needed for gut balance

Research supports this approach to taking probiotics. When mixtures of several probiotics were compared with single strains of probiotics in the treatment of IBS, the systematic reviews and meta-analyses indicated that the multi-strain probiotics were more effective than single-strain probiotics. [101, 102]

Quality Assurance

Probiotic products are not highly regulated in the United States. Several studies have shown that a surprising number of probiotic supplements do not contain the species and concentrations listed on their label, or contain unacceptable microorganisms. [103, 104]

When shopping for probiotic supplements, look for these indicators of quality:

  • A clearly stated list of species
  • A clearly stated number of colony-forming units (CFUs) in the billions
  • A manufacture date or expiration date
  • Labeled free of common allergens and other substances you may wish to avoid (e.g. gluten-free, non-GMO, vegan)
  • Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) certification
  • Lab-verified for probiotic species and potency by third-party analysis (independent lab testing)

My line of probiotic supplements meets all of these quality assurance criteria.

Probiotic Safety

Probiotics are safe and have few side effects. The National Institute of Health states that probiotics are generally safe, even for premature infants. [105

“Given the large quantities of probiotics consumed around the world, the numbers of opportunistic infections that result from currently marketed probiotics are negligible. For example, probiotics have been administered to thousands of newborn infants, including some who were premature, without a single case of sepsis.” [105]

There Are a Lot of Reasons to Take Probiotics

Some medical professionals still claim that there is no evidence that probiotics are effective. Clearly these “experts” haven’t spent hundreds of hours combing through the research. 

Of course, more research is always needed to refine our understanding. And new studies into probiotics are published regularly.

With more than 500 clinical trials to support their use in maintaining gut health and treating a wide variety of symptoms and conditions, probiotics simply make sense. 

➕ References
  1. Quigley EM. Gut bacteria in health and disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2013 Sep;9(9):560-9. PMID: 24729765; PMCID: PMC3983973.
  2. Bressa C, Bailén-Andrino M, Pérez-Santiago J, González-Soltero R, Pérez M, Montalvo-Lominchar MG, Maté-Muñoz JL, Domínguez R, Moreno D, Larrosa M. Differences in gut microbiota profile between women with active lifestyle and sedentary women. PLoS One. 2017 Feb 10;12(2):e0171352. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171352. PMID: 28187199; PMCID: PMC5302835.
  3. Smith RP, Easson C, Lyle SM, Kapoor R, Donnelly CP, Davidson EJ, Parikh E, Lopez JV, Tartar JL. Gut microbiome diversity is associated with sleep physiology in humans. PLoS One. 2019 Oct 7;14(10):e0222394. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222394. PMID: 31589627; PMCID: PMC6779243.
  4. Leblhuber F, Steiner K, Schuetz B, Fuchs D, Gostner JM. Probiotic Supplementation in Patients with Alzheimer’s Dementia – An Explorative Intervention Study. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2018;15(12):1106-1113. doi: 10.2174/1389200219666180813144834. PMID: 30101706; PMCID: PMC6340155.
  5. Derrien M, van Hylckama Vlieg JE. Fate, activity, and impact of ingested bacteria within the human gut microbiota. Trends Microbiol. 2015 Jun;23(6):354-66. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2015.03.002. Epub 2015 Apr 1. PMID: 25840765.
  6. Sanders ME. Impact of probiotics on colonizing microbiota of the gut. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2011 Nov;45 Suppl:S115-9. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e318227414a. PMID: 21992949.
  7. Toribio-Mateas M. Harnessing the Power of Microbiome Assessment Tools as Part of Neuroprotective Nutrition and Lifestyle Medicine Interventions. Microorganisms. 2018 Apr 25;6(2):35. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms6020035. PMID: 29693607; PMCID: PMC6027349.
  8. Stenman LK, Lehtinen MJ, Meland N, Christensen JE, Yeung N, Saarinen MT, Courtney M, Burcelin R, Lähdeaho ML, Linros J, Apter D, Scheinin M, Kloster Smerud H, Rissanen A, Lahtinen S. Probiotic With or Without Fiber Controls Body Fat Mass, Associated With Serum Zonulin, in Overweight and Obese Adults-Randomized Controlled Trial. EBioMedicine. 2016 Nov;13:190-200. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.10.036. Epub 2016 Oct 26. PMID: 27810310; PMCID: PMC5264483.
  9. Hajifaraji M, Jahanjou F, Abbasalizadeh F, Aghamohammadzadeh N, Abbasi MM, Dolatkhah N. Effect of probiotic supplements in women with gestational diabetes mellitus on inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers: a randomized clinical trial. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2018;27(3):581-591. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.082017.03. PMID: 29737805.
  10. Wu HJ, Wu E. The role of gut microbiota in immune homeostasis and autoimmunity. Gut Microbes. 2012 Jan-Feb;3(1):4-14. doi: 10.4161/gmic.19320. Epub 2012 Jan 1. PMID: 22356853; PMCID: PMC3337124.
  11. Lazar V, Ditu LM, Pircalabioru GG, Gheorghe I, Curutiu C, Holban AM, Picu A, Petcu L, Chifiriuc MC. Aspects of Gut Microbiota and Immune System Interactions in Infectious Diseases, Immunopathology, and Cancer. Front Immunol. 2018 Aug 15;9:1830. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01830. PMID: 30158926; PMCID: PMC6104162.
  12. Demoruelle MK, Deane KD, Holers VM. When and where does inflammation begin in rheumatoid arthritis? Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2014 Jan;26(1):64-71. doi: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000017. PMID: 24247116; PMCID: PMC4033623.
  13. Paquissi FC. The role of inflammation in cardiovascular diseases: the predictive value of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a marker in peripheral arterial disease. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2016 May 27;12:851-60. doi: 10.2147/TCRM.S107635. PMID: 27313459; PMCID: PMC4892833.
  14. Biondi RB, Salmazo PS, Bazan SGZ, Hueb JC, de Paiva SAR, Sassaki LY. Cardiovascular Risk in Individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2020 Apr 24;13:107-113. doi: 10.2147/CEG.S243478. PMID: 32425576; PMCID: PMC7188070.
  15. Arrieta MC, Bistritz L, Meddings JB. Alterations in intestinal permeability. Gut. 2006 Oct;55(10):1512-20. doi: 10.1136/gut.2005.085373. PMID: 16966705; PMCID: PMC1856434.
  16. Marsh A, Eslick EM, Eslick GD. Does a diet low in FODMAPs reduce symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders? A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Nutr. 2016 Apr;55(3):897-906. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-0922-1. Epub 2015 May 17. PMID: 25982757.
  17. Altobelli E, Del Negro V, Angeletti PM, Latella G. Low-FODMAP Diet Improves Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms: A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2017 Aug 26;9(9):940. doi: 10.3390/nu9090940. PMID: 28846594; PMCID: PMC5622700.
  18. Gibson PR. Use of the low-FODMAP diet in inflammatory bowel disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Mar;32 Suppl 1:40-42. doi: 10.1111/jgh.13695. PMID: 28244679.
  19. Pedersen N, Ankersen DV, Felding M, Wachmann H, Végh Z, Molzen L, Burisch J, Andersen JR, Munkholm P. Low-FODMAP diet reduces irritable bowel symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2017 May 14;23(18):3356-3366. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i18.3356. PMID: 28566897; PMCID: PMC5434443.
  20. Zhan YL, Zhan YA, Dai SX. Is a low FODMAP diet beneficial for patients with inflammatory bowel disease? A meta-analysis and systematic review. Clin Nutr. 2018 Feb;37(1):123-129. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.05.019. Epub 2017 May 24. PMID: 28587774.
  21. Cox SR, Lindsay JO, Fromentin S, Stagg AJ, McCarthy NE, Galleron N, Ibraim SB, Roume H, Levenez F, Pons N, Maziers N, Lomer MC, Ehrlich SD, Irving PM, Whelan K. Effects of Low FODMAP Diet on Symptoms, Fecal Microbiome, and Markers of Inflammation in Patients With Quiescent Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Randomized Trial. Gastroenterology. 2020 Jan;158(1):176-188.e7. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.09.024. Epub 2019 Oct 2. PMID: 31586453.
  22. Zahedi MJ, Behrouz V, Azimi M. Low fermentable oligo-di-mono-saccharides and polyols diet versus general dietary advice in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;33(6):1192-1199. doi: 10.1111/jgh.14051. Epub 2018 Feb 21. PMID: 29159993.
  23. Rezac S, Kok CR, Heermann M, Hutkins R. Fermented Foods as a Dietary Source of Live Organisms. Front Microbiol. 2018 Aug 24;9:1785. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01785. PMID: 30197628; PMCID: PMC6117398.
  24. LAYE, I., KARLESKIND, D. and MORR, C. (1993), Chemical, Microbiological and Sensory Properties of Plain Nonfat Yogurt. Journal of Food Science, 58: 991-995. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb06096.x
  25. Fan, S., Breidt, F., Price, R., & P´erez-D´ıaz, I. Survival and Growth of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria in Refrigerated Pickle Products. Journal of Food Science Vol. 82, Nr. 1, 2017. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13579
  26. How do you measure the probiotics in the pickles? [Internet]. Olive My Pickle. [cited 2021 Jun 1]. Available from: https://www.olivemypickle.com/blogs/news/probiotics-in-our-pickles-microbiology-lab-verified
  27. Hecer, C., *Ulusoy, B. and Kaynarca, D. Effect of different fermentation conditions on composition of kefir microbiota. International Food Research Journal 26(2): 401-409 (April 2019).
  28. Patra, J., Das, G., Paramithiotis, S., & Shin, H. (2016, September 07). Kimchi and Other Widely Consumed Traditional Fermented Foods of Korea: A Review. Front. Microbiol., 28 September 2016. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01493
  29. Yuan F, Ni H, Asche CV, Kim M, Walayat S, Ren J. Efficacy of Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Curr Med Res Opin. 2017 Jul;33(7):1191-1197. doi: 10.1080/03007995.2017.1292230. Epub 2017 Mar 7. PMID: 28166427.
  30. Tiequn B, Guanqun C, Shuo Z. Therapeutic effects of Lactobacillus in treating irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Intern Med. 2015;54(3):243-9. doi: 10.2169/internalmedicine.54.2710. PMID: 25748731.
  31. McFarland LV, Dublin S. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 May 7;14(17):2650-61. doi: 10.3748/wjg.14.2650. PMID: 18461650; PMCID: PMC2709042.
  32. Whelan K. Probiotics and prebiotics in the management of irritable bowel syndrome: a review of recent clinical trials and systematic reviews. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011 Nov;14(6):581-7. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e32834b8082. PMID: 21892075.
  33. Martoni CJ, Srivastava S, Leyer GJ. Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 and Bifidobacterium lactis UABla-12 Improve Abdominal Pain Severity and Symptomology in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2020 Jan 30;12(2):363. doi: 10.3390/nu12020363. PMID: 32019158; PMCID: PMC7071206.
  34. Zhong C, Qu C, Wang B, Liang S, Zeng B. Probiotics for Preventing and Treating Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Current Evidence. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2017 Apr;51(4):300-311. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000814. PMID: 28267052.
  35. Soifer LO, Peralta D, Dima G, Besasso H. Eficacia comparativa de un probiótico vs un antibiótico en la respuesta clínica de pacientes con sobrecrecimiento bacteriano del intestino y distensión abdominal crónica funcional: un estudio piloto [Comparative clinical efficacy of a probiotic vs. an antibiotic in the treatment of patients with intestinal bacterial overgrowth and chronic abdominal functional distension: a pilot study]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam. 2010 Dec;40(4):323-7. Spanish. PMID: 21381407.
  36. Leventogiannis K, Gkolfakis P, Spithakis G, Tsatali A, Pistiki A, Sioulas A, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Triantafyllou K. Effect of a Preparation of Four Probiotics on Symptoms of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Association with Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2019 Jun;11(2):627-634. doi: 10.1007/s12602-018-9401-3. Erratum in: Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2018 Mar 28;: PMID: 29508268; PMCID: PMC6541575.
  37. McFarlin BK, Henning AL, Bowman EM, Gary MA, Carbajal KM. Oral spore-based probiotic supplementation was associated with reduced incidence of post-prandial dietary endotoxin, triglycerides, and disease risk biomarkers. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 2017 Aug 15;8(3):117-126. doi: 10.4291/wjgp.v8.i3.117. PMID: 28868181; PMCID: PMC5561432.
  38. Sindhu KN, Sowmyanarayanan TV, Paul A, Babji S, Ajjampur SS, Priyadarshini S, Sarkar R, Balasubramanian KA, Wanke CA, Ward HD, Kang G. Immune response and intestinal permeability in children with acute gastroenteritis treated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Apr;58(8):1107-15. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu065. Epub 2014 Feb 5. PMID: 24501384; PMCID: PMC3967829.
  39. Lamprecht M, Bogner S, Schippinger G, Steinbauer K, Fankhauser F, Hallstroem S, Schuetz B, Greilberger JF. Probiotic supplementation affects markers of intestinal barrier, oxidation, and inflammation in trained men; a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Sep 20;9(1):45. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-9-45. PMID: 22992437; PMCID: PMC3465223.
  40. Mujagic Z, de Vos P, Boekschoten MV, Govers C, Pieters HH, de Wit NJ, Bron PA, Masclee AA, Troost FJ. The effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on small intestinal barrier function and mucosal gene transcription; a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Sci Rep. 2017 Jan 3;7:40128. doi: 10.1038/srep40128. PMID: 28045137; PMCID: PMC5206730.
  41. Eslami M, Yousefi B, Kokhaei P, Jazayeri Moghadas A, Sadighi Moghadam B, Arabkari V, Niazi Z. Are probiotics useful for therapy of Helicobacter pylori diseases? Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Jun;64:99-108. doi: 10.1016/j.cimid.2019.02.010. Epub 2019 Mar 5. PMID: 31174707.
  42. Demirel G, Celik IH, Erdeve O, Saygan S, Dilmen U, Canpolat FE. Prophylactic Saccharomyces boulardii versus nystatin for the prevention of fungal colonization and invasive fungal infection in premature infants. Eur J Pediatr. 2013 Oct;172(10):1321-6. doi: 10.1007/s00431-013-2041-4. Epub 2013 May 24. PMID: 23703468.
  43. Dinleyici EC, Eren M, Dogan N, Reyhanioglu S, Yargic ZA, Vandenplas Y. Clinical efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii or metronidazole in symptomatic children with Blastocystis hominis infection. Parasitol Res. 2011 Mar;108(3):541-5. doi: 10.1007/s00436-010-2095-4. Epub 2010 Oct 5. PMID: 20922415.
  44. Besirbellioglu BA, Ulcay A, Can M, Erdem H, Tanyuksel M, Avci IY, Araz E, Pahsa A. Saccharomyces boulardii and infection due to Giardia lamblia. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38(6-7):479-81. doi: 10.1080/00365540600561769. PMID: 16798698.
  45. Hedin C, Whelan K, Lindsay JO. Evidence for the use of probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: a review of clinical trials. Proc Nutr Soc. 2007 Aug;66(3):307-15. doi: 10.1017/S0029665107005563. PMID: 17637082.
  46. Kruis W, Fric P, Pokrotnieks J, Lukás M, Fixa B, Kascák M, Kamm MA, Weismueller J, Beglinger C, Stolte M, Wolff C, Schulze J. Maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis with the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 is as effective as with standard mesalazine. Gut. 2004 Nov;53(11):1617-23. doi: 10.1136/gut.2003.037747. PMID: 15479682; PMCID: PMC1774300.
  47. Iheozor-Ejiofor Z, Kaur L, Gordon M, Baines PA, Sinopoulou V, Akobeng AK. Probiotics for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Mar 4;3(3):CD007443. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007443.pub3. PMID: 32128794. PMCID: PMC7059960.
  48. Cheng J, Ouwehand AC. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Probiotics: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2020 Jan 2;12(1):132. doi: 10.3390/nu12010132. PMID: 31906573; PMCID: PMC7019778.
  49. Wen Y, Li J, Long Q, Yue CC, He B, Tang XG. The efficacy and safety of probiotics for patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on seventeen randomized controlled trials. Int J Surg. 2020 Jul;79:111-119. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.04.063. Epub 2020 May 6. PMID: 32387213.
  50. Goodman C, Keating G, Georgousopoulou E, Hespe C, Levett K. Probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2021 Aug 12;11(8):e043054. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043054. PMID: 34385227. PMCID: PMC8362734.
  51. Blaabjerg S, Artzi DM, Aabenhus R. Probiotics for the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Outpatients-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Antibiotics (Basel). 2017 Oct 12;6(4):21. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics6040021. PMID: 29023420; PMCID: PMC5745464.
  52. Cai J, Zhao C, Du Y, Zhang Y, Zhao M, Zhao Q. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of probiotics for antibiotic-associated diarrhea: Systematic review with network meta-analysis. United European Gastroenterol J. 2018 Mar;6(2):169-180. doi: 10.1177/2050640617736987. Epub 2017 Oct 4. PMID: 29511547; PMCID: PMC5833232.
  53. Wang Y, Li X, Ge T, Xiao Y, Liao Y, Cui Y, Zhang Y, Ho W, Yu G, Zhang T. Probiotics for prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Aug;95(31):e4509. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000004509. PMID: 27495104; PMCID: PMC4979858.
  54. Falagas ME, Betsi GI, Tokas T, Athanasiou S. Probiotics for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: a review of the evidence from microbiological and clinical studies. Drugs. 2006;66(9):1253-61. doi: 10.2165/00003495-200666090-00007. PMID: 16827601.
  55. Wang Z, He Y, Zheng Y. Probiotics for the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis: A Meta-Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Oct 12;16(20):3859. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16203859. PMID: 31614736; PMCID: PMC6848925.
  56. Hanson L, VandeVusse L, Jermé M, Abad CL, Safdar N. Probiotics for Treatment and Prevention of Urogenital Infections in Women: A Systematic Review. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2016 May;61(3):339-55. doi: 10.1111/jmwh.12472. PMID: 27218592.
  57. Seminario-Amez M, López-López J, Estrugo-Devesa A, Ayuso-Montero R, Jané-Salas E. Probiotics and oral health: A systematic review. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2017 May 1;22(3):e282-e288. doi: 10.4317/medoral.21494. PMID: 28390121; PMCID: PMC5432076.
  58. Ng QX, Peters C, Ho CYX, Lim DY, Yeo WS. A meta-analysis of the use of probiotics to alleviate depressive symptoms. J Affect Disord. 2018 Mar 1;228:13-19. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.11.063. Epub 2017 Nov 16. PMID: 29197739.
  59. Huang R, Wang K, Hu J. Effect of Probiotics on Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2016 Aug 6;8(8):483. doi: 10.3390/nu8080483. PMID: 27509521; PMCID: PMC4997396.
  60. Akkasheh G, Kashani-Poor Z, Tajabadi-Ebrahimi M, Jafari P, Akbari H, Taghizadeh M, Memarzadeh MR, Asemi Z, Esmaillzadeh A. Clinical and metabolic response to probiotic administration in patients with major depressive disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition. 2016 Mar;32(3):315-20. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2015.09.003. Epub 2015 Sep 28. PMID: 26706022.
  61. Yang BWei JJu P, et al
    Effects of regulating intestinal microbiota on anxiety symptoms: A systematic review
  62. Rao AV, Bested AC, Beaulne TM, Katzman MA, Iorio C, Berardi JM, Logan AC. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of a probiotic in emotional symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome. Gut Pathog. 2009 Mar 19;1(1):6. doi: 10.1186/1757-4749-1-6. PMID: 19338686; PMCID: PMC2664325.
  63. Liu B, He Y, Wang M, Liu J, Ju Y, Zhang Y, Liu T, Li L, Li Q. Efficacy of probiotics on anxiety-A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Depress Anxiety. 2018 Oct;35(10):935-945. doi: 10.1002/da.22811. Epub 2018 Jul 11. PMID: 29995348.
  64. Liu RT, Walsh RFL, Sheehan AE. Prebiotics and probiotics for depression and anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2019 Jul;102:13-23. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.03.023. Epub 2019 Apr 17. PMID: 31004628; PMCID: PMC6584030.
  65. Reis DJ, Ilardi SS, Punt SEW. The anxiolytic effect of probiotics: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical and preclinical literature. PLoS One. 2018 Jun 20;13(6):e0199041. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199041. PMID: 29924822; PMCID: PMC6010276.
  66. McKean J, Naug H, Nikbakht E, Amiet B, Colson N. Probiotics and Subclinical Psychological Symptoms in Healthy Participants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Apr;23(4):249-258. doi: 10.1089/acm.2016.0023. Epub 2016 Nov 14. PMID: 27841940.
  67. Messaoudi M, Violle N, Bisson JF, Desor D, Javelot H, Rougeot C. Beneficial psychological effects of a probiotic formulation (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in healthy human volunteers. Gut Microbes. 2011 Jul-Aug;2(4):256-61. doi: 10.4161/gmic.2.4.16108. Epub 2011 Jul 1. PMID: 21983070.
  68. Allen AP, Hutch W, Borre YE, Kennedy PJ, Temko A, Boylan G, Murphy E, Cryan JF, Dinan TG, Clarke G. Bifidobacterium longum 1714 as a translational psychobiotic: modulation of stress, electrophysiology and neurocognition in healthy volunteers. Transl Psychiatry. 2016 Nov 1;6(11):e939. doi: 10.1038/tp.2016.191. PMID: 27801892; PMCID: PMC5314114.
  69. Kato-Kataoka A, Nishida K, Takada M, Kawai M, Kikuchi-Hayakawa H, Suda K, Ishikawa H, Gondo Y, Shimizu K, Matsuki T, Kushiro A, Hoshi R, Watanabe O, Igarashi T, Miyazaki K, Kuwano Y, Rokutan K. Fermented Milk Containing Lactobacillus casei Strain Shirota Preserves the Diversity of the Gut Microbiota and Relieves Abdominal Dysfunction in Healthy Medical Students Exposed to Academic Stress. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016 May 31;82(12):3649-58. doi: 10.1128/AEM.04134-15. PMID: 27208120; PMCID: PMC4959178.
  70. Culpepper T, Christman MC, Nieves C Jr, Specht GJ, Rowe CC, Spaiser SJ, Ford AL, Dahl WJ, Girard SA, Langkamp-Henken B. Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 decreases stress-associated diarrhoea-related symptoms and self-reported stress: a secondary analysis of a randomised trial. Benef Microbes. 2016 Jun;7(3):327-36. doi: 10.3920/BM2015.0156. Epub 2016 Feb 3. PMID: 26839075.
  71. Takada M, Nishida K, Gondo Y, Kikuchi-Hayakawa H, Ishikawa H, Suda K, Kawai M, Hoshi R, Kuwano Y, Miyazaki K, Rokutan K. Beneficial effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on academic stress-induced sleep disturbance in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Benef Microbes. 2017 Apr 26;8(2):153-162. doi: 10.3920/BM2016.0150. PMID: 28443383.
  72. Marotta A, Sarno E, Del Casale A, Pane M, Mogna L, Amoruso A, Felis GE, Fiorio M. Effects of Probiotics on Cognitive Reactivity, Mood, and Sleep Quality. Front Psychiatry. 2019 Mar 27;10:164. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00164. PMID: 30971965; PMCID: PMC6445894.
  73. Faghihi AH, Agah S, Masoudi M, Ghafoori SM, Eshraghi A. Efficacy of Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: a Double Blind Placebo-controlled Randomized Trial. Acta Med Indones. 2015 Jul;47(3):201-8. PMID: 26586385.
  74. Romijn AR, Rucklidge JJ, Kuijer RG, Frampton C. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum for the symptoms of depression. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2017 Aug;51(8):810-821. doi: 10.1177/0004867416686694. Epub 2017 Jan 10. PMID: 28068788; PMCID: PMC5518919.
  75. Nakakita Y, Tsuchimoto N, Takata Y, Nakamura T. Effect of dietary heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 (SBL88™) on sleep: a non-randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, and crossover pilot study. Benef Microbes. 2016 Sep;7(4):501-9. doi: 10.3920/BM2015.0118. Epub 2016 Mar 25. PMID: 27013460.
  76. Oak SJ, Jha R. The effects of probiotics in lactose intolerance: A systematic review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2019;59(11):1675-1683. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1425977. Epub 2018 Feb 9. PMID: 29425071.
  77. Di Pierro F, Bergomas F, Marraccini P, Ingenito MR, Ferrari L, Vigna L. Pilot study on non-celiac gluten sensitivity: effects of Bifidobacterium longum ES1 co-administered with a gluten-free diet. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol. 2020 Sep;66(3):187-193. doi: 10.23736/S1121-421X.20.02673-2. Epub 2020 May 12. PMID: 32397695.
  78. Francavilla R, Piccolo M, Francavilla A, Polimeno L, Semeraro F, Cristofori F, Castellaneta S, Barone M, Indrio F, Gobbetti M, De Angelis M. Clinical and Microbiological Effect of a Multispecies Probiotic Supplementation in Celiac Patients With Persistent IBS-type Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter Trial. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2019 Mar;53(3):e117-e125. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001023. PMID: 29688915; PMCID: PMC6382041.
  79. Güvenç IA, Muluk NB, Mutlu FŞ, Eşki E, Altıntoprak N, Oktemer T, Cingi C. Do probiotics have a role in the treatment of allergic rhinitis? A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2016 Sep 1;30(5):157-175. doi: 10.2500/ajra.2016.30.4354. Epub 2016 Jul 20. PMID: 27442711.
  80. Dennis-Wall JC, Culpepper T, Nieves C Jr, Rowe CC, Burns AM, Rusch CT, Federico A, Ukhanova M, Waugh S, Mai V, Christman MC, Langkamp-Henken B. Probiotics (Lactobacillus gasseri KS-13, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1, and Bifidobacterium longum MM-2) improve rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life in individuals with seasonal allergies: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):758-767. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.140012. Epub 2017 Feb 22. PMID: 28228426.
  81. Wang HT, Anvari S, Anagnostou K. The Role of Probiotics in Preventing Allergic Disease. Children (Basel). 2019 Feb 5;6(2):24. doi: 10.3390/children6020024. PMID: 30764558; PMCID: PMC6406271.
  82. Akbari E, Asemi Z, Daneshvar Kakhaki R, Bahmani F, Kouchaki E, Tamtaji OR, Hamidi GA, Salami M. Effect of Probiotic Supplementation on Cognitive Function and Metabolic Status in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Randomized, Double-Blind and Controlled Trial. Front Aging Neurosci. 2016 Nov 10;8:256. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2016.00256. PMID: 27891089; PMCID: PMC5105117.
  83. Tamtaji OR, Heidari-Soureshjani R, Mirhosseini N, Kouchaki E, Bahmani F, Aghadavod E, Tajabadi-Ebrahimi M, Asemi Z. Probiotic and selenium co-supplementation, and the effects on clinical, metabolic and genetic status in Alzheimer’s disease: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2019 Dec;38(6):2569-2575. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.11.034. Epub 2018 Dec 10. PMID: 30642737.
  84. Reininghaus EZ, Wetzlmair LC, Fellendorf FT, Platzer M, Queissner R, Birner A, Pilz R, Hamm C, Maget A, Koidl C, Riedrich K, Klampfer K, Ferk K, Dalkner N. The Impact of Probiotic Supplements on Cognitive Parameters in Euthymic Individuals with Bipolar Disorder: A Pilot Study. Neuropsychobiology. 2018 Sep 18:1-8. doi: 10.1159/000492537. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 30227422.
  85. Roman, P., Estévez, A.F., Miras, A. et al. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial to Explore Cognitive and Emotional Effects of Probiotics in Fibromyalgia. Sci Rep 8, 10965 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29388-5
  86. Frändemark Å, Jakobsson Ung E, Törnblom H, Simrén M, Jakobsson S. Fatigue: a distressing symptom for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2017 Jan;29(1). doi: 10.1111/nmo.12898. Epub 2016 Jul 11. PMID: 27401139.
  87. Talebi S, Karimifar M, Heidari Z, Mohammadi H, Askari G. The effects of synbiotic supplementation on thyroid function and inflammation in hypothyroid patients: A randomized, double‑blind, placebo‑controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 2020 Jan;48:102234. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2019.102234. Epub 2019 Nov 3. PMID: 31987229.
  88. Uusitalo U, Liu X, Yang J, Aronsson CA, Hummel S, Butterworth M, Lernmark Å, Rewers M, Hagopian W, She JX, Simell O, Toppari J, Ziegler AG, Akolkar B, Krischer J, Norris JM, Virtanen SM; TEDDY Study Group. Association of Early Exposure of Probiotics and Islet Autoimmunity in the TEDDY Study. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Jan;170(1):20-8. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.2757. PMID: 26552054; PMCID: PMC4803028.
  89. Kouchaki E, Tamtaji OR, Salami M, Bahmani F, Daneshvar Kakhaki R, Akbari E, Tajabadi-Ebrahimi M, Jafari P, Asemi Z. Clinical and metabolic response to probiotic supplementation in patients with multiple sclerosis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2017 Oct;36(5):1245-1249. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2016.08.015. Epub 2016 Sep 16. PMID: 27669638.
  90. Pineda Mde L, Thompson SF, Summers K, de Leon F, Pope J, Reid G. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot study of probiotics in active rheumatoid arthritis. Med Sci Monit. 2011 Jun;17(6):CR347-54. doi: 10.12659/msm.881808. PMID: 21629190; PMCID: PMC3539551.
  91. Alipour B, Homayouni-Rad A, Vaghef-Mehrabany E, Sharif SK, Vaghef-Mehrabany L, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Nakhjavani MR, Mohtadi-Nia J. Effects of Lactobacillus casei supplementation on disease activity and inflammatory cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Int J Rheum Dis. 2014 Jun;17(5):519-27. doi: 10.1111/1756-185X.12333. Epub 2014 Mar 27. PMID: 24673738.
  92. Zamani B, Golkar HR, Farshbaf S, Emadi-Baygi M, Tajabadi-Ebrahimi M, Jafari P, Akhavan R, Taghizadeh M, Memarzadeh MR, Asemi Z. Clinical and metabolic response to probiotic supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Rheum Dis. 2016 Sep;19(9):869-79. doi: 10.1111/1756-185X.12888. Epub 2016 May 2. PMID: 27135916.
  93. Kang BS, Seo JG, Lee GS, Kim JH, Kim SY, Han YW, Kang H, Kim HO, Rhee JH, Chung MJ, Park YM. Antimicrobial activity of enterocins from Enterococcus faecalis SL-5 against Propionibacterium acnes, the causative agent in acne vulgaris, and its therapeutic effect. J Microbiol. 2009 Feb;47(1):101-9. doi: 10.1007/s12275-008-0179-y. Epub 2009 Feb 20. PMID: 19229497.
  94. Muizzuddin N, Maher W, Sullivan M, Schnittger S, Mammone T. Physiological effect of a probiotic on skin. J Cosmet Sci. 2012 Nov-Dec;63(6):385-95. PMID: 23286870.
  95. Navarro-López V, Ramírez-Boscá A, Ramón-Vidal D, Ruzafa-Costas B, Genovés-Martínez S, Chenoll-Cuadros E, Carrión-Gutiérrez M, Horga de la Parte J, Prieto-Merino D, Codoñer-Cortés FM. Effect of Oral Administration of a Mixture of Probiotic Strains on SCORAD Index and Use of Topical Steroids in Young Patients With Moderate Atopic Dermatitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Dermatol. 2018 Jan 1;154(1):37-43. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2017.3647. PMID: 29117309; PMCID: PMC5833582.
  96. Inoue Y, Kambara T, Murata N, Komori-Yamaguchi J, Matsukura S, Takahashi Y, Ikezawa Z, Aihara M. Effects of oral administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 on the symptoms and serum cytokines of atopic dermatitis in Japanese adults: a double-blind, randomized, clinical trial. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2014;165(4):247-54. doi: 10.1159/000369806. Epub 2015 Jan 31. PMID: 25660281.
  97. Skórka A, Pieścik-Lech M, Kołodziej M, Szajewska H. To add or not to add probiotics to infant formulae? An updated systematic review. Benef Microbes. 2017 Oct 13;8(5):717-725. doi: 10.3920/BM2016.0233. Epub 2017 Aug 31. PMID: 28856907.
  98. Sohn K, Underwood MA. Prenatal and postnatal administration of prebiotics and probiotics. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017 Oct;22(5):284-289. doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2017.07.002. Epub 2017 Jul 15. PMID: 28720399; PMCID: PMC5618799.
  99. Kuang L, Jiang Y. Effect of probiotic supplementation in pregnant women: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2020 Apr 28;123(8):870-880. doi: 10.1017/S0007114519003374. Epub 2019 Dec 20. PMID: 31856928.
  100. Ilinskaya ON, Ulyanova VV, Yarullina DR, Gataullin IG. Secretome of Intestinal Bacilli: A Natural Guard against Pathologies. Front Microbiol. 2017 Sep 1;8:1666. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01666. PMID: 28919884; PMCID: PMC5586196.
  101. American College of Gastroenterology Task Force on Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Brandt LJ, Chey WD, Foxx-Orenstein AE, Schiller LR, Schoenfeld PS, Spiegel BM, Talley NJ, Quigley EM. An evidence-based position statement on the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Jan;104 Suppl 1:S1-35. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2008.122. PMID: 19521341.
  102. Ford AC, Quigley EM, Lacy BE, Lembo AJ, Saito YA, Schiller LR, Soffer EE, Spiegel BM, Moayyedi P. Efficacy of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics in irritable bowel syndrome and chronic idiopathic constipation: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014 Oct;109(10):1547-61; quiz 1546, 1562. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2014.202. Epub 2014 Jul 29. PMID: 25070051.
  103. Marinova VY, Rasheva IK, Kizheva YK, Dermenzhieva YD, Hristova PK. Microbiological quality of probiotic dietary supplements. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 2019 Jan 1;33(1):834–41. DOI: 10.1080/13102818.2019.1621208.
  104. Ansari JM, Colasacco C, Emmanouil E, Kohlhepp S, Harriott O. Strain-level diversity of commercial probiotic isolates of Bacillus, Lactobacillus, and Saccharomyces species illustrated by molecular identification and phenotypic profiling. PLoS One. 2019 Mar 22;14(3):e0213841. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213841. PMID: 30901338; PMCID: PMC6430388.
  105. Probiotics – Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. National Institutes of Health. https://labdoor.com/rankings/probiotics

Need help or would like to learn more?
View Dr. Ruscio’s, DC additional resources

Get Help

Discussion

I care about answering your questions and sharing my knowledge with you. Leave a comment or connect with me on social media asking any health question you may have and I just might incorporate it into our next listener questions podcast episode just for you!