Dr. Michael Ruscio, DC is a clinician, Naturopathic Practitioner, clinical researcher, author, and adjunct professor at the University of Bridgeport. His work has been published in peer-reviewed medical journals and he speaks at conferences around the globe.
Here’s What to Know About Probiotics and Your Weight
Claims that probiotics can promote weight loss aren’t supported by strong scientific evidence.
However, probiotics can create a healthy gut and balance gut microbiota, while indirectly improving metabolic health.
Having a healthy range of gut bacteria seems to correlate with less likelihood of being overweight, but this isn’t necessarily a cause and effect relationship.
There’s no one specific “weight loss” strain of probiotics. Balancing the microbiome as a whole with probiotics from multiple categories is a good way to support a healthy gut and weight.
The best way to lose excess weight is by eating a portion-controlled healthy, nutrient-rich diet.
Incorporating high-impact interval training (HIIT) can help with shedding pounds too.
As probiotics have gotten more popular they’ve become a bit of a cure-all for health conditions. But while probiotics have many benefits, the trend to use them for weight management needs a more critical look.
In this article, we’ll discover what is known about probiotics for weight loss. The bottom line is that while there’s a link between gut microbiota and healthy body weight, probiotics are not a magic pill for managing overweight or obesity.
But since probiotics can balance the microbiome (and the microbiome is linked to metabolic health), they can help support weight loss alongside a healthy diet and exercise regimen.
Let’s get a look into the controversy surrounding probiotics and weight loss.
Do Probiotics for Weight Loss Really Work?
Overall, as we’ll see below, the data suggests that probiotic supplements only have modest effects on actively promoting weight loss. If there is a direct benefit, it tends to be rather insignificant [1, 2].
The Link Between Gut Bacteria and Weight
However, this is not to completely discount the role of gut bacteria in combating obesity. For example, we know there are differences in the microbiota of obese individuals and lean individuals . Lower levels of Bacteroidetes and higher levels of Firmicutes species have been found in obese people, though research is conflicting. It’s not known if being overweight causes bad bacteria to thrive or if bad bacteria drive obesity .
Two studies have shown a relationship between SIBO and body weight. In these studies, patients who tested positive for SIBO had higher BMI scores than patients without SIBO [4, 5]. However, not all the data show that SIBO correlates to weight gain, so the exact relationship between dysbiosis and increased BMI is unclear .
One theory is that hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria work against your weight loss attempts by causing you to absorb extra calories from your diet [7, 8].
The research isn’t perfect, but it does illustrate that the microbiome is tied to metabolic health. As probiotics are excellent in restoring the gut flora, it’s reasonable to assume that they can also have an effect on overall weight — let’s see what the research says.
Studies That Support Probiotics for Weight Loss
The following studies are often cited as evidence that probiotic supplements are useful for weight loss:
A small study involving 28 overweight participants found that those given yogurt containing Lactobacillus amylovorus lost 3% body fat. Those consuming yogurt containing Lactobacillus fermentum lost 4% body fat. A control group that wasn’t given probiotics lost only 1% body fat .
A study published in the British Journal of Nutrition showed that women who took Lactobacillus rhamnosus supplements while on a weight control diet lost around 4 lbs more on average over 12 weeks than compared to those who just dieted but didn’t take probiotics. The probiotics offered no enhanced weight or fat loss benefits in men .
A group of 210 healthy Japanese adults with excess visceral fat (fat wrapped around the organs) had an 8.5% decrease in this fat when they consumed fermented milk containing Lactobacillus gasseri .
Studies That Don’t Support Probiotics For Weight Loss
However, other research doesn’t support a strong link between probiotics and weight loss. For example:
A 2021 systematic review and meta-analysis involving over 1700 overweight and obese participants determined that taking single and multi-species probiotics resulted in just 1.5 pounds of weight loss and less than half an inch lost off the waist .
A separate 2021 systematic review and meta-analysis which compared the effects of probiotics versus placebo in overweight or obese people found probiotics were linked with less than ¾ of a point reduction in Body Mass Index (BMI) .
A systematic review of over 27 randomized controlled trials concluded that good bacteria (largely Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains), could help reduce weight and body fat mass in overweight and obese populations. However, many of the studies included multiple weight loss strategies, so probiotics probably weren’t the main factor .
In a systematic review evaluating whether probiotics are effective for managing overweight and obesity, half of the studies seemed to show some benefit, while the other half did not. However, microbial composition changes were reported as outcomes only in 3 studies, and the authors state that “due to the limited number of studies included, the effects of probiotics treatments in the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity still need more consistent work” .
A 2019 meta-analysis of 19 clinical trials suggested that probiotic supplements have a small effect on reducing waist circumference but no effect on body weight or BMI .
A 2017 systematic review evaluated the effects of Lactobacilli on weight loss and/or fat mass in overweight adults. Of 14 studies included in the review, nine showed decreased body weight and/or body fat, three did not find effect and two showed weight gain .
Probiotics For Weight Loss: Verdict
You’ll notice that the studies that didn’t find much of a weight loss benefit for probiotics, or had mixed findings, are more numerous than those that do. Additionally, they are all meta-analyses and systematic reviews, meaning that they analyze many studies in one go and give us access to much better quality data and more insights.
By comparison, the studies that support probiotics being used to lose weight tend to be smaller and less robust. They are often seized by internet marketers looking to cherry-pick data that will support their marketing goals.
This highlights the need to use caution before putting too much clout into weight loss trends. However, this doesn’t mean we should cast aside the use of probiotics for weight loss completely. While probiotics may not instigate weight loss directly, this doesn’t mean they can’t be part of the overall picture when it comes to losing weight.
Beneficial bacteria can be used alongside a healthy diet and regular exercise routine as they shine in healing the gut, which can indirectly (and positively) impact your ability to maintain a healthy weight. Let’s hone in a bit more on what probiotics can do for your digestive health, metabolic health, and overall well-being.
Probiotics Provide Gut Health and Other Body Benefits
While they probably aren’t the most effective first-line treatment for weight loss [16, 18], the healthy bacteria in probiotics do help to restore gut health, which leads to better metabolic and overall health. Health benefits of probiotic supplements include:
Balancing the good microbes and bad bacteria in your gut microbiome .
Boosting the immune system (which is primarily located in your digestive tract) [19, 20, 21].
Reducing the inflammation in the digestive tract and elsewhere in the body .
Reducing gut symptoms like bloating, diarrhea, and constipation [26, 27, 28, 29, 30].
Helping with many non-digestive symptoms like anxiety, vaginosis, gum disease, and even heart disease [31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36].
Improving glucose control and insulin resistance in those with type 2 diabetes .
Normalizing cholesterol and other lipid levels [38, 39, 40, 41, 42].
The research shows that probiotics have numerous health benefits, including better blood sugar control and improved lipid levels, which can affect weight. One of the extended benefits patients often experience after alleviating gut health issues with probiotics is that they feel generally better and have more robust energy levels and improved mental health. This in turn can help people tackle their excess weight more successfully.
So while the key diet and exercise strategies below are the most important ones to tackle to lose weight, a more comprehensive strategy is also to improve your gut health, with probiotics being one part of that.
Which Probiotic Is Best to Support Weight Loss?
With so many thousands of probiotic strains and considerable differences in gut flora across populations of people, the “best” type and ratio of bacteria for staying slim is hard to define. There isn’t necessarily a specific probiotic strain that is best for improving your metabolic health, but rather using a variety of different strains of bacteria is probably best to cover all bases.
The best probiotic supplement to support a healthy diet and weight loss regimen is likely to be one that contains multiple species, for example, a combination of Lactobacillus / Bifidobacteria strains, soil-based probiotics, and beneficial yeasts. It can be challenging to find a supplement that contains all of these types of probiotics, so taking them separately is often more reasonable.
The Most Effective Ways to Lose Weight
To lose weight, you will need to take in less energy than you expend, but ironically calorie counting rarely works. Focusing on nutrient-packed foods that will make you feel satiated and full is a much better idea, and is supported by research .
It’s a good idea to ensure your diet includes the phytochemicals, good fats, fermented foods (e.g.kimchi and kefir), and prebiotic fibers needed to help a wide variety of good bacteria flourish. Some eating plans that have shown promise in helping people lose weight include:
Meal replacements: One systematic review/meta-analysis found that calorie restriction with meal replacements was more effective for weight loss than standard calorie restriction. Meal replacement plans include bars and shakes (such as Elemental Heal) that are fortified with all the nutrients you need and designed to replace 1 to 3 meals per day. Diets that included at least 60% of calories from meal replacement had the greatest effect on weight loss .
Intermittent fasting: A 2021 systematic review/meta-analysis showed that periodic rather than continuous calorie restriction, e.g. for 2–3 days each week, may have the greatest effect on weight loss . One review that looked at five different diets including the Mediterranean diet, a low-fat diet, and calorie restriction found that all led to significant weight loss in patients with both type-1 and type-2 diabetes. However, maintenance of weight loss only occurred when fasting or intermittent fasting was present .
Keto diet: A review of several low-carb diets found that following a very low calorie ketogenic diet for at least a month could lead to dramatic weight loss (22 lbs to 34.4 lbs in 4 weeks) . This weight loss was stable for up to 2 years and cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and liver enzymes also improved.
For people who need to lose a lot of weight fast for medical reasons, a keto diet is certainly very effective, but in my clinical experience it can cut carbs too drastically and affect your energy levels. If you don’t have to lose weight very rapidly, a Paleo-style diet works better for most of my patients and is where I advise most people who want to both manage their weight and look after their gut health to start.
Exercise for Weight Loss
Physical activity is generally more effective for helping to maintain a healthy body weight and less effective for actual weight loss . That said, HIIT (high-intensity interval training) has the biggest chance of being effective for trimming down and is definitely more effective than probiotics for weight loss.
One study found that HIIT training done 3 times a week for 8 weeks or more led to mild reductions in body weight and total belly fat mass in premenopausal women .
HIIT 2-3 times a week for 6-12 weeks reduced body weight by an average of 3.8 lbs, while also reducing body fat percentage, and waist size, in obese teenagers .
HIIT and progressive resistance training (PRT), alone or in combination, also reduced BMI and body fat percentage in older adults with a high risk for diabetes or heart disease .
The Role of Probiotics in Weight Loss
While there are lots of great reasons to take probiotics, significantly reducing weight and body fat doesn’t seem to be one of them. The main role of probiotics is to look after your gut health and digestive system by tipping the balance in favor of a healthier microbiota.
One side benefit of probiotics may be helping to create the right environment for maintaining a healthy weight and improving metabolic health, but they probably don’t directly help burn calories. To sum it up, you shouldn’t solely rely on probiotics for weight loss, but they can certainly be part of a comprehensive weight loss plan.
Rather than only focusing on probiotics for weight loss, you should think about eating a healthy, unprocessed diet to lose the pounds, such as the Paleo diet. To speed up your efforts, you can also try calorie restriction through meal replacement shakes or intermittent fasting. Lastly, don’t forget to throw in some physical activity to help maintain your weight loss efforts.
The Ruscio Institute has developed a range of high-quality formulations to help our patients and audience. If you’re interested in learning more about these products, please click here. Note that there are many other options available, and we encourage you to research which products may be right for you.
Koliada A, Syzenko G, Moseiko V, Budovska L, Puchkov K, Perederiy V, et al. Association between body mass index and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in an adult Ukrainian population. BMC Microbiol. 2017 May 22;17(1):120. DOI: 10.1186/s12866-017-1027-1. PMID: 28532414. PMCID: PMC5440985.
Kocsis T, Molnár B, Németh D, Hegyi P, Szakács Z, Bálint A, et al. Probiotics have beneficial metabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 16;10(1):11787. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-68440-1. PMID: 32678128. PMCID: PMC7366719.
Angelakis E, Armougom F, Million M, Raoult D. The relationship between gut microbiota and weight gain in humans. Future Microbiol. 2012 Jan;7(1):91–109. DOI: 10.2217/fmb.11.142. PMID: 22191449.
Basseri RJ, Basseri B, Pimentel M, Chong K, Youdim A, Low K, et al. Intestinal methane production in obese individuals is associated with a higher body mass index. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2012 Jan;8(1):22–8. PMID: 22347829. PMCID: PMC3277195.
Mathur R, Amichai M, Chua KS, Mirocha J, Barlow GM, Pimentel M. Methane and hydrogen positivity on breath test is associated with greater body mass index and body fat. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Apr;98(4):E698-702. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2012-3144. PMID: 23533244. PMCID: PMC3615195.
Jung SE, Joo NS, Han KS, Kim KN. Obesity Is Inversely Related to Hydrogen-Producing Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Non-Constipation Irritable Bowel Syndrome. J Korean Med Sci. 2017 Jun;32(6):948–53. DOI: 10.3346/jkms.2017.32.6.948. PMID: 28480652. PMCID: PMC5426230.
Zhang H, DiBaise JK, Zuccolo A, Kudrna D, Braidotti M, Yu Y, et al. Human gut microbiota in obesity and after gastric bypass. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009 Feb 17;106(7):2365–70. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0812600106. PMID: 19164560. PMCID: PMC2629490.
Omar JM, Chan Y-M, Jones ML, Prakash S, Jones PJH. Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus amylovorus as probiotics alter body adiposity and gut microflora in healthy persons. J Funct Foods. 2013 Jan;5(1):116–23. DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2012.09.001.
Sanchez M, Darimont C, Drapeau V, Emady-Azar S, Lepage M, Rezzonico E, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women. Br J Nutr. 2014 Apr 28;111(8):1507–19. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114513003875. PMID: 24299712.
Kadooka Y, Sato M, Ogawa A, Miyoshi M, Uenishi H, Ogawa H, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 in fermented milk on abdominal adiposity in adults in a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2013 Nov 14;110(9):1696–703. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114513001037. PMID: 23614897.
Pontes KS da S, Guedes MR, Cunha MR da, Mattos S de S, Barreto Silva MI, Neves MF, et al. Effects of probiotics on body adiposity and cardiovascular risk markers in individuals with overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr. 2021 Aug;40(8):4915–31. DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2021.06.023. PMID: 34358838.
Perna S, Ilyas Z, Giacosa A, Gasparri C, Peroni G, Faliva MA, et al. Is Probiotic Supplementation Useful for the Management of Body Weight and Other Anthropometric Measures in Adults Affected by Overweight and Obesity with Metabolic Related Diseases? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2021 Feb 19;13(2). DOI: 10.3390/nu13020666. PMID: 33669580. PMCID: PMC7922558.
Álvarez-Arraño V, Martín-Peláez S. Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics on Weight Loss in Subjects with Overweight or Obesity: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2021 Oct 17;13(10). DOI: 10.3390/nu13103627. PMID: 34684633. PMCID: PMC8540110.
Tomé-Castro XM, Rodriguez-Arrastia M, Cardona D, Rueda-Ruzafa L, Molina-Torres G, Roman P. Probiotics as a therapeutic strategy in obesity and overweight: a systematic review. Benef Microbes. 2021 Feb 24;12(1):5–15. DOI: 10.3920/BM2020.0111. PMID: 33459204.
Suzumura EA, Bersch-Ferreira ÂC, Torreglosa CR, da Silva JT, Coqueiro AY, Kuntz MGF, et al. Effects of oral supplementation with probiotics or synbiotics in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized trials. Nutr Rev. 2019 Jun 1;77(6):430–50. DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuz001. PMID: 30924853.
Crovesy L, Ostrowski M, Ferreira DMTP, Rosado EL, Soares-Mota M. Effect of Lactobacillus on body weight and body fat in overweight subjects: a systematic review of randomized controlled clinical trials. Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 Nov;41(11):1607–14. DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2017.161. PMID: 28792488.
Park S, Bae J-H. Probiotics for weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Res. 2015 Jul;35(7):566–75. DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2015.05.008. PMID: 26032481.
Toribio-Mateas M. Harnessing the power of microbiome assessment tools as part of neuroprotective nutrition and lifestyle medicine interventions. Microorganisms. 2018 Apr 25;6(2). DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms6020035. PMID: 29693607. PMCID: PMC6027349.
Stenman LK, Lehtinen MJ, Meland N, Christensen JE, Yeung N, Saarinen MT, et al. Probiotic With or Without Fiber Controls Body Fat Mass, Associated With Serum Zonulin, in Overweight and Obese Adults-Randomized Controlled Trial. EBioMedicine. 2016 Nov;13:190–200. DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.10.036. PMID: 27810310. PMCID: PMC5264483.
Frei R, Akdis M, O’Mahony L. Prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, and the immune system: experimental data and clinical evidence. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2015 Mar;31(2):153–8. DOI: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000151. PMID: 25594887.
Leblhuber F, Steiner K, Schuetz B, Fuchs D, Gostner JM. Probiotic Supplementation in Patients with Alzheimer’s Dementia – An Explorative Intervention Study. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2018;15(12):1106–13. DOI: 10.2174/1389200219666180813144834. PMID: 30101706. PMCID: PMC6340155.
Tiequn B, Guanqun C, Shuo Z. Therapeutic effects of Lactobacillus in treating irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Intern Med. 2015;54(3):243–9. DOI: 10.2169/internalmedicine.54.2710. PMID: 25748731.
Yuan F, Ni H, Asche CV, Kim M, Walayat S, Ren J. Efficacy of Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Curr Med Res Opin. 2017 Jul;33(7):1191–7. DOI: 10.1080/03007995.2017.1292230. PMID: 28166427.
Hedin C, Whelan K, Lindsay JO. Evidence for the use of probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: a review of clinical trials. Proc Nutr Soc. 2007 Aug;66(3):307–15. DOI: 10.1017/S0029665107005563. PMID: 17637082.
McFarland LV, Dublin S. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 May 7;14(17):2650–61. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.14.2650. PMID: 18461650. PMCID: PMC2709042.
Martoni CJ, Srivastava S, Leyer GJ. Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 and Bifidobacterium lactis UABla-12 Improve Abdominal Pain Severity and Symptomology in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2020 Jan 30;12(2). DOI: 10.3390/nu12020363. PMID: 32019158. PMCID: PMC7071206.
Wen Y, Li J, Long Q, Yue C-C, He B, Tang X-G. The efficacy and safety of probiotics for patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on seventeen randomized controlled trials. Int J Surg. 2020 Jul;79:111–9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.04.063. PMID: 32387213.
Zhang C, Jiang J, Tian F, Zhao J, Zhang H, Zhai Q, et al. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effects of probiotics on functional constipation in adults. Clin Nutr. 2020 Oct;39(10):2960–9. DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2020.01.005. PMID: 32005532.
Hempel S, Newberry SJ, Maher AR, Wang Z, Miles JNV, Shanman R, et al. Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2012 May 9;307(18):1959–69. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2012.3507. PMID: 22570464.
Yang B, Wei J, Ju P, Chen J. Effects of regulating intestinal microbiota on anxiety symptoms: A systematic review. Gen Psych. 2019 May 17;32(2):e100056. DOI: 10.1136/gpsych-2019-100056. PMID: 31179435. PMCID: PMC6551444.
Rao AV, Bested AC, Beaulne TM, Katzman MA, Iorio C, Berardi JM, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of a probiotic in emotional symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome. Gut Pathog. 2009 Mar 19;1(1):6. DOI: 10.1186/1757-4749-1-6. PMID: 19338686. PMCID: PMC2664325.
van de Wijgert J, Verwijs MC. Lactobacilli-containing vaginal probiotics to cure or prevent bacterial or fungal vaginal dysbiosis: a systematic review and recommendations for future trial designs. BJOG. 2020 Jan;127(2):287–99. DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.15870. PMID: 31299136.
Seminario-Amez M, López-López J, Estrugo-Devesa A, Ayuso-Montero R, Jané-Salas E. Probiotics and oral health: A systematic review. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2017 May 1;22(3):e282–8. DOI: 10.4317/medoral.21494. PMID: 28390121. PMCID: PMC5432076.
Janczarek M, Bachanek T, Mazur E, Chałas R. The role of probiotics in prevention of oral diseases. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2016 Jan 4;70(0):850–7. DOI: 10.5604/17322693.1214381. PMID: 27594560.
Valentini L, Pinto A, Bourdel-Marchasson I, Ostan R, Brigidi P, Turroni S, et al. Impact of personalized diet and probiotic supplementation on inflammation, nutritional parameters and intestinal microbiota – The “RISTOMED project”: Randomized controlled trial in healthy older people. Clin Nutr. 2015 Aug;34(4):593–602. DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2014.09.023. PMID: 25453395.
Zhang C, Jiang J, Wang C, Li S, Yu L, Tian F, et al. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effects of probiotics on type 2 diabetes in adults. Clin Nutr. 2022 Feb;41(2):365–73. DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2021.11.037. PMID: 34999331.
Hendijani F, Akbari V. Probiotic supplementation for management of cardiovascular risk factors in adults with type II diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Nutr. 2018 Apr;37(2):532–41. DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.02.015. PMID: 28318686.
He J, Zhang F, Han Y. Effect of probiotics on lipid profiles and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of RCTs. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Dec;96(51):e9166. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009166. PMID: 29390450. PMCID: PMC5758152.
Wang L, Guo M-J, Gao Q, Yang J-F, Yang L, Pang X-L, et al. The effects of probiotics on total cholesterol: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Feb;97(5):e9679. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009679. PMID: 29384846. PMCID: PMC5805418.
Wu Y, Zhang Q, Ren Y, Ruan Z. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus on lipid profile: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. PLoS ONE. 2017 Jun 8;12(6):e0178868. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178868. PMID: 28594860. PMCID: PMC5464580.
Dong Y, Xu M, Chen L, Bhochhibhoya A. Probiotic Foods and Supplements Interventions for Metabolic Syndromes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Recent Clinical Trials. Ann Nutr Metab. 2019 Mar 19;74(3):224–41. DOI: 10.1159/000499028. PMID: 30889572.
Min J, Kim S-Y, Shin I-S, Park Y-B, Lim Y-W. The Effect of Meal Replacement on Weight Loss According to Calorie-Restriction Type and Proportion of Energy Intake: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2021 Aug;121(8):1551-1564.e3. DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2021.05.001. PMID: 34144920.
He S, Wang J, Zhang J, Xu J. Intermittent Versus Continuous Energy Restriction for Weight Loss and Metabolic Improvement: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2021 Jan;29(1):108–15. DOI: 10.1002/oby.23023. PMID: 34494373.
Thackrey E, Chen J, Martino C-R, Preda V. The effects of diet on weight and metabolic outcomes in patients with double diabetes: A systematic review. Nutrition. 2022 Feb;94:111536. DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2021.111536. PMID: 34936947.
Castellana M, Conte E, Cignarelli A, Perrini S, Giustina A, Giovanella L, et al. Efficacy and safety of very low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in patients with overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2020 Mar;21(1):5–16. DOI: 10.1007/s11154-019-09514-y. PMID: 31705259.
Cox CE. Role of physical activity for weight loss and weight maintenance. Diabetes Spectr. 2017 Aug;30(3):157–60. DOI: 10.2337/ds17-0013. PMID: 28848307. PMCID: PMC5556592.
Dupuit M, Maillard F, Pereira B, Marquezi ML, Lancha AH, Boisseau N. Effect of high intensity interval training on body composition in women before and after menopause: a meta-analysis. Exp Physiol. 2020 Sep;105(9):1470–90. DOI: 10.1113/EP088654. PMID: 32613697.
Zhu Y, Nan N, Wei L, Li T, Gao X, Lu D. The effect and safety of high-intensity interval training in the treatment of adolescent obesity: a meta-analysis. Ann Palliat Med. 2021 Aug;10(8):8596–606. DOI: 10.21037/apm-21-757. PMID: 34328013.
McLeod KA, Jones MD, Thom JM, Parmenter BJ. Resistance Training and High-intensity Interval Training Improve Cardiometabolic Health in High Risk Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-anaylsis. Int J Sports Med. 2022 Mar;43(3):206–18. DOI: 10.1055/a-1560-6183. PMID: 34320660.
I care about answering your questions and sharing my knowledge with you. Leave a comment or connect with me on social media asking any health question you may have and I just might incorporate it into our next listener questions podcast episode just for you!
Transform your health
Every product is science-based, validated by real-world use, and personally vetted by Dr. Ruscio, DC.