What’s the Best Prebiotic Supplement, and Can It Help You?

Your Guide to the Benefits and Downsides of Prebiotics

If you’re working on getting your gut microbiome in healthy shape, prebiotics are an option to consider. But, it’s important to know that they don’t work for everyone, and that the best prebiotic supplement for one person might be the same one that kicks off symptoms in someone else.

In fact, beyond choosing a product from a manufacturer you can trust, there’s not too much to go on when you’re trying to find the best prebiotic supplement for you. A sensitive gut may tolerate some prebiotics more easily than others, but the wider picture is that they should only be one part of a holistic gut health plan and approached cautiously.

In this article we’ll look at the pros and cons of prebiotics and how to decide if taking a prebiotic supplement is the right choice for you.

Best prebiotic supplement: vegetables on a placemat

What Are Prebiotics?

Prebiotics aren’t living organisms (like the healthy bacteria in probiotic supplements), but they do increase the amount of live bacteria in the gut by acting as a food source for them to grow. 

Most prebiotics belong to a specific family of carbohydrates that are fermentable by gut bacteria. They also count as fiber in your diet, so you often see them referred to as prebiotic fiber as well.

The best prebiotic powders or supplements will clearly label the types and amount of prebiotics they contain. The commonest prebiotics used in high-quality supplements include: 

  • Inulin
  • Fructo-oligosaccharides or FOS (oligofructose)
  • Galacto-oligosaccharides
  • Resistant starch

Prebiotic Foods 

Food can also be a significant source of prebiotic fibers. Good prebiotic sources include [1 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]. 

  • Leeks
  • Asparagus
  • Onions
  • Wheat bran
  • Garlic
  • Chicory root
  • Oats
  • Soybeans
  • Jerusalem artichokes

Prebiotic fibers pass through the digestive tract largely undigested. But when prebiotics enter the large intestine (colon), the gut bacteria that live there can use them as a food source. 

Prebiotic Pros and Cons

On the upside, prebiotics can boost numbers of beneficial bacteria like lactobacillus and bifidobacteria. These good bacteria ferment the prebiotics they are using as a food source, which in turn produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyrate. These SCFAs have beneficial effects such as:

On the downside, people with digestive health problems can be particularly sensitive to prebiotics, for instance producing more flatulence when they consume higher doses [4 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]. Why is this? Well, if you have an overgrowth of bacteria or an imbalance in your gut microbiome, prebiotics may be feeding not only the healthy microbes but the problematic ones. 

Let’s look in more detail at some of the health conditions prebiotics may help with, before considering when and why you might need to be cautious with their use.

Potential Health Benefits of Prebiotics 

Though prebiotics aren’t as well researched as probiotics as yet, there are some promising outcomes, including:

Easing of chronic constipation: A meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials (the highest standard of scientific assessment available) found that inulin supplements improved stool frequency, consistency, and transit time through the digestive system. However they did not improve pain or bloating [5 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source].

Improved colon function: A systematic review / meta-analysis (SR/MA) of nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) found that resistant starch increased stool bulk and butyrate production in healthy adults [6 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source].

Mood-lifting potential: An RCT found that inulin intake was helpful at improving mood in some obese subjects, though strength of response was dependent on the individual’s gut microbiome makeup at the beginning on the study [7 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source].

Hunger curbing: An SR/MA of RCTs concluded that inulin-type prebiotics may help reduce ghrelin (the so-called “hunger hormone”) in overweight or obese people [8 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]. However, they did not appear to help with weight loss or weight management [9 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source].

Metabolic and cholesterol-lowering effects: Research reviews have found good evidence that prebiotics can [10 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source, 11 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]:

  • Help reduce blood triglycerides (linked with heart disease)
  • Increase HDL (good) cholesterol
  • Reduce elevated liver enzymes
  • Improve fasting insulin and reduce insulin resistance 

Conditions Prebiotics Likely Won’t Help 

Best prebiotic supplement powder on a wooden scoop

Prebiotics are by no means a silver bullet for your gut microbiome or related health problems, however. For example prebiotics have so far shown not to be of much help for: 

Cognitive performance: Although one small study found evidence of improved cognitive flexibility and sustained attention after taking prebiotics [12 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source], a larger SR/MA and an RCT found evidence that prebiotics don’t significantly benefit cognition in adults or children [13 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source, 14 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]. Neither did prebiotics benefit physical function, frailty, mood, hospitalization duration, or mortality in older people with cognitive impairment [15 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source].

Eczema: An SR/MA comparing probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics (a combination of the two) for their effects on infant eczema found that probiotics and synbiotics reduced the incidence of eczema, but prebiotics alone had no effect [16 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source].

Irritable bowel syndrome: A collection of SR/MAs have found little to no evidence that prebiotics are a beneficial treatment for IBS [17 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source, 18 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source, 19 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]. In one of these the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on IBS symptoms were compared. It found that multi-strain probiotics with Bifidobacterium species had the greatest positive effect on overall IBS symptoms. Synbiotics helped with urgency, abdominal pain, and flatulence, but prebiotics alone were not clearly beneficial for IBS.

Sensitivity to Prebiotics

Whether or not you benefit from prebiotics may well have to do with underlying gut sensitivities.

The issue is that prebiotics, especially in large or inappropriate amounts, may feed gut bacteria in general, not just the good types. So, if the bacteria in your gut are overgrown or imbalanced, prebiotics may actually exacerbate the problem. Most prebiotic foods are also FODMAPs — belonging to the same family of fermentable carbohydrates that can kick off gut symptoms for some individuals [19 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]. So though prebiotics can definitely have benefits, they may also cause discomfort.

For example:

  • A 2016 SR/MA found that despite all of the potential benefits of high-FODMAP foods, many of which contain prebiotics, there are some cases where these types of fiber may actually cause more harm than good, specifically if you suffer from functional GI symptoms, like those that occur in IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), IBD (inflammatory bowel disease), or SIBO (small intestinal bacterial overgrowth) [20 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]. 
  • A 2018 RCT that compared a standard Mediterranean-style diet plus prebiotic with a low FODMAP diet plus placebo, found [21 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]:
    • Significant symptom relief in both groups after four weeks, but also more flatulence and rumbling in the prebiotic group.
    • An increase in bifidobacteria in the prebiotic group (but a decrease in the low FODMAPs group). 
    • A flare of symptoms for some patients upon introduction of prebiotics, but this went away after 7-10 days. 
  • In a 2017 RCT, 20 participants with mixed or diarrhea-dominant IBS ate a low FODMAP diet for three weeks before being given either a high dose FOS or placebo supplement for ten days. This was followed by a three-week washout period (no supplements) and then another ten days of the supplements, but switched round, so those who had placebo before now had prebiotic, and vice versa. The FODMAPs diet was continued throughout. The result showed that [22 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]:
    • All IBS symptoms improved after three weeks on a low FODMAP diet (85% patient satisfaction).
    • FOS produced theoretical benefits to gut health (increasing some good bacteria species and SCFAs). 
    • However, the prebiotic also increased nausea, vomiting, headache, belching, and flatulence (placebo did not cause this effect).

Clinical Takeaways 

It’s possible to interpret the above results in different ways, but the clinical takeaway that I’ve found suits patients best is to avoid prebiotic supplements when the gut is still very symptomatic.

In short, the more sensitive your gut is, the more careful you should be with prebiotics — the “no gain without pain” saying is not the right one here!

After your symptoms have improved, it’s fine to carefully introduce prebiotics as a boost to gut health. You may well still get a minor flare up of symptoms, but when the time is right for your microbiome to accept and benefit from prebiotics, any side effects should be minor and short-lived.

Dosage Matters

Even if you do seem to tolerate prebiotics well, more is not necessarily better, and the best prebiotic supplement may well be one that is only a modest dosage.

The further you increase your intake beyond the threshold useful prebiotic intake (likely around 3 grams a day) the more chance you will have of running into impactful side effects.

For example, whereas low dose prebiotics may cause some bloating, higher doses can cause diarrhea, which is a much more significant side effect [23 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source].

A good analogy here is that of using fertilizer (prebiotics) on a garden (your microbiota). While some fertilizer is good to help bacteria grow, dumping on too much fertilizer might be damaging to the overall ecosystem, potentially worsening dysbiosis (gut bacteria imbalances).

Using Diet and Probiotics to Heal Your Gut

Rather than leaping straight to prebiotics to try and improve your microbiome, the better and more fundamental place to start is your diet. 

For making improvements to gut health this means: 

  • Eating a less processed, more whole food diet to control inflammation. 
  • Paying attention to any food intolerances you might have that could be worsening gut symptoms.
  • Eating in a way that helps keep your blood sugar on an even keel (less refined carbs and more protein and dietary fiber rich foods).
  • Finding your ideal intake of carbohydrates and prebiotics.
Four Principles of a Healthy Diet

Because we are focusing on prebiotics in this article, let’s pay a little bit more attention to the fourth bullet point above. 

Determining the right amount of carbohydrates and prebiotics for you is such an important principle because everyone’s individual tolerance level for prebiotics and fermentable carbohydrates is a bit different and can change over time.

For example, as your gut heals, say from a condition like SIBO, you might find that you can enjoy more healthy carbohydrates and prebiotics than you were previously able to.

As a general principle here, it’s best to start with the least restrictive diet and only move onto something more limited if you don’t get results.

In increasing order of restrictiveness that would usually mean: 

That said, there are no real hard and fast rules here. For example for IBS specifically, the low FODMAP diet is highly effective and you might want to try this first. 

What About Probiotics?

Whereas prebiotics taken too early in your gut healing program might cause problems, research shows the same is not true for probiotics

Diet is always the first place to start in your gut healing journey, but probiotics can also be introduced early on without any problems. For most patients, changes to diet and use of a multistrain probiotic can produce symptom relief within a couple of weeks. 

Scientific studies show a wide variety of benefits from taking probiotics, including:

Is There a ‘Best’ Prebiotic Supplement?

There’s very little research comparing prebiotic types. But as with any time you are choosing a supplement, look for a reputable brand that uses high-quality manufacturing processes, and check the ingredients and dosage are suitable for you. It’s a good sign if the product has been tested in independent clinical trials too.

One study suggested that galacto-oligosaccharides (found in the supplement Bimuno) may be favorable because they seem to [37 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]:

  • More specifically boost healthy bifidobacteria than other prebiotics
  • Produce this beneficial effect at lower doses 

In theory, at least this could mean more benefits with fewer issues for a sensitive gut. However, more research is needed. 

Tying It All Together

Prebiotics are like a fertilizer for your good bacteria, and they have some quite good documented health benefits. However, whether you will benefit is very individual, and some trial and error might be needed to help find what is the best probiotic supplement (and dosage) for you. 

The best advice for most patients with gut health issues is to bide your time and only introduce prebiotics after you are already well on the road to recovery. 

You can read more about my eight-step gut healing program in Healthy Gut, Healthy You. Or for a personal health consultation click here.

➕ References
  1. Carlson JL, Erickson JM, Lloyd BB, Slavin JL. Health effects and sources of prebiotic dietary fiber. Curr Dev Nutr. 2018 Mar;2(3):nzy005. DOI: 10.1093/cdn/nzy005. PMID: 30019028. PMCID: PMC6041804. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  2. Liu H, Wang J, He T, Becker S, Zhang G, Li D, et al. Butyrate: A Double-Edged Sword for Health? Adv Nutr. 2018 Jan 1;9(1):21–9. DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmx009. PMID: 29438462. PMCID: PMC6333934. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  3. Silva YP, Bernardi A, Frozza RL. The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids From Gut Microbiota in Gut-Brain Communication. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020 Jan 31;11:25. DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2020.00025. PMID: 32082260. PMCID: PMC7005631. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  4. Wilson B, Rossi M, Dimidi E, Whelan K. Prebiotics in irritable bowel syndrome and other functional bowel disorders in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Apr 1;109(4):1098–111. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy376. PMID: 30949662. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  5. Collado Yurrita L, San Mauro Martín I, Ciudad-Cabañas MJ, Calle-Purón ME, Hernández Cabria M. Effectiveness of inulin intake on indicators of chronic constipation; a meta-analysis of controlled randomized clinical trials. Nutr Hosp. 2014 Aug 1;30(2):244–52. DOI: 10.3305/nh.2014.30.2.7565. PMID: 25208775. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  6. Shen D, Bai H, Li Z, Yu Y, Zhang H, Chen L. Positive effects of resistant starch supplementation on bowel function in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Mar;68(2):149–57. DOI: 10.1080/09637486.2016.1226275. PMID: 27593182. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  7. Leyrolle Q, Cserjesi R, D G H Mulders M, Zamariola G, Hiel S, Gianfrancesco MA, et al. Prebiotic effect on mood in obese patients is determined by the initial gut microbiota composition: A randomized, controlled trial. Brain Behav Immun. 2021 May;94:289–98. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2021.01.014. PMID: 33515740. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  8. da Silva Borges D, Fernandes R, Thives Mello A, da Silva Fontoura E, Soares Dos Santos AR, Santos de Moraes Trindade EB. Prebiotics may reduce serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and ghrelin in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. 2020 Mar 1;78(3):235–48. DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuz045. PMID: 31504857. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  9. Qu H, Song L, Zhang Y, Gao Z-Y, Shi D-Z. The Effect of Prebiotic Products on Decreasing Adiposity Parameters in Overweight and Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta- Analysis. Curr Med Chem. 2021;28(2):419–31. DOI: 10.2174/0929867327666191230110128. PMID: 31886746. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  10. Beserra BTS, Fernandes R, do Rosario VA, Mocellin MC, Kuntz MGF, Trindade EBSM. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prebiotics and synbiotics effects on glycaemia, insulin concentrations and lipid parameters in adult patients with overweight or obesity. Clin Nutr. 2015 Oct;34(5):845–58. DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2014.10.004. PMID: 25456608. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  11. Stachowska E, Portincasa P, Jamioł-Milc D, Maciejewska-Markiewicz D, Skonieczna-Żydecka K. The Relationship between Prebiotic Supplementation and Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Patients with NAFLD-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2020 Nov 11;12(11). DOI: 10.3390/nu12113460. PMID: 33187278. PMCID: PMC7698299. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  12. Berding K, Long-Smith CM, Carbia C, Bastiaanssen TFS, van de Wouw M, Wiley N, et al. A specific dietary fibre supplementation improves cognitive performance-an exploratory randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2021 Jan;238(1):149–63. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-020-05665-y. PMID: 32951067. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  13. Marx W, Scholey A, Firth J, D’Cunha NM, Lane M, Hockey M, et al. Prebiotics, probiotics, fermented foods and cognitive outcomes: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2020 Nov;118:472–84. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.07.036. PMID: 32860802. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  14. Capitão LP, Baião R, Baek HK, Kappelmann N, Sharman R, Harvey C-J, et al. Prebiotic supplementation does not affect reading and cognitive performance in children: A randomised placebo-controlled study. J Psychopharmacol (Oxford). 2020 Jan;34(1):148–52. DOI: 10.1177/0269881119862534. PMID: 31342840. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  15. Coutts L, Ibrahim K, Tan QY, Lim SER, Cox NJ, Roberts HC. Can probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics improve functional outcomes for older people: a systematic review. Eur Geriatr Med. 2020 Dec;11(6):975–93. DOI: 10.1007/s41999-020-00396-x. PMID: 32974888. PMCID: PMC7515554. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  16. Dang D, Zhou W, Lun ZJ, Mu X, Wang DX, Wu H. Meta-analysis of probiotics and/or prebiotics for the prevention of eczema. J Int Med Res. 2013 Oct;41(5):1426–36. DOI: 10.1177/0300060513493692. PMID: 23908398. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  17. Ford AC, Harris LA, Lacy BE, Quigley EMM, Moayyedi P. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the efficacy of prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics in irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Nov;48(10):1044–60. DOI: 10.1111/apt.15001. PMID: 30294792. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  18. Ooi SL, Correa D, Pak SC. Probiotics, prebiotics, and low FODMAP diet for irritable bowel syndrome – What is the current evidence? Complement Ther Med. 2019 Apr;43:73–80. DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2019.01.010. PMID: 30935559. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  19. Asha MZ, Khalil SFH. Efficacy and Safety of Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics in the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2020 Feb;20(1):e13–24. DOI: 10.18295/squmj.2020.20.01.003. PMID: 32190365. PMCID: PMC7065695. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  20. Marsh A, Eslick EM, Eslick GD. Does a diet low in FODMAPs reduce symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders? A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Nutr. 2016 Apr;55(3):897–906. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-0922-1. PMID: 25982757. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  21. Huaman J-W, Mego M, Manichanh C, Cañellas N, Cañueto D, Segurola H, et al. Effects of prebiotics vs a diet low in fodmaps in patients with functional gut disorders. Gastroenterology. 2018 Oct;155(4):1004–7. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.06.045. PMID: 29964041. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  22. Hustoft TN, Hausken T, Ystad SO, Valeur J, Brokstad K, Hatlebakk JG, et al. Effects of varying dietary content of fermentable short-chain carbohydrates on symptoms, fecal microenvironment, and cytokine profiles in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2017 Apr;29(4). DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12969. PMID: 27747984. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  23. Davani-Davari D, Negahdaripour M, Karimzadeh I, Seifan M, Mohkam M, Masoumi SJ, et al. Prebiotics: definition, types, sources, mechanisms, and clinical applications. Foods. 2019 Mar 9;8(3). DOI: 10.3390/foods8030092. PMID: 30857316. PMCID: PMC6463098. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  24. Sanders ME. Impact of probiotics on colonizing microbiota of the gut. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2011 Nov;45 Suppl:S115-9. DOI: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e318227414a. PMID: 21992949. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  25. Toribio-Mateas M. Harnessing the power of microbiome assessment tools as part of neuroprotective nutrition and lifestyle medicine interventions. Microorganisms. 2018 Apr 25;6(2). DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms6020035. PMID: 29693607. PMCID: PMC6027349. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  26. Stenman LK, Lehtinen MJ, Meland N, Christensen JE, Yeung N, Saarinen MT, et al. Probiotic With or Without Fiber Controls Body Fat Mass, Associated With Serum Zonulin, in Overweight and Obese Adults-Randomized Controlled Trial. EBioMedicine. 2016 Nov;13:190–200. DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.10.036. PMID: 27810310. PMCID: PMC5264483. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  27. Leblhuber F, Steiner K, Schuetz B, Fuchs D, Gostner JM. Probiotic Supplementation in Patients with Alzheimer’s Dementia – An Explorative Intervention Study. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2018;15(12):1106–13. DOI: 10.2174/1389200219666180813144834. PMID: 30101706. PMCID: PMC6340155. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  28. Mujagic Z, de Vos P, Boekschoten MV, Govers C, Pieters H-JHM, de Wit NJW, et al. The effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on small intestinal barrier function and mucosal gene transcription; a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Sci Rep. 2017 Jan 3;7:40128. DOI: 10.1038/srep40128. PMID: 28045137. PMCID: PMC5206730. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  29. Sindhu KNC, Sowmyanarayanan TV, Paul A, Babji S, Ajjampur SSR, Priyadarshini S, et al. Immune response and intestinal permeability in children with acute gastroenteritis treated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Apr;58(8):1107–15. DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu065. PMID: 24501384. PMCID: PMC3967829. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  30. Lamprecht M, Bogner S, Schippinger G, Steinbauer K, Fankhauser F, Hallstroem S, et al. Probiotic supplementation affects markers of intestinal barrier, oxidation, and inflammation in trained men; a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Sep 20;9(1):45. DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-9-45. PMID: 22992437. PMCID: PMC3465223. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  31. Zhong C, Qu C, Wang B, Liang S, Zeng B. Probiotics for Preventing and Treating Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Current Evidence. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2017 Apr;51(4):300–11. DOI: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000814. PMID: 28267052. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  32. Hedin C, Whelan K, Lindsay JO. Evidence for the use of probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: a review of clinical trials. Proc Nutr Soc. 2007 Aug;66(3):307–15. DOI: 10.1017/S0029665107005563. PMID: 17637082. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  33. Yuan F, Ni H, Asche CV, Kim M, Walayat S, Ren J. Efficacy of Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Curr Med Res Opin. 2017 Jul;33(7):1191–7. DOI: 10.1080/03007995.2017.1292230. PMID: 28166427. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  34. Tiequn B, Guanqun C, Shuo Z. Therapeutic effects of Lactobacillus in treating irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Intern Med. 2015;54(3):243–9. DOI: 10.2169/internalmedicine.54.2710. PMID: 25748731. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  35. McFarland LV, Dublin S. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 May 7;14(17):2650–61. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.14.2650. PMID: 18461650. PMCID: PMC2709042. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  36. Hoveyda N, Heneghan C, Mahtani KR, Perera R, Roberts N, Glasziou P. A systematic review and meta-analysis: probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. BMC Gastroenterol. 2009 Feb 16;9:15. DOI: 10.1186/1471-230X-9-15. PMID: 19220890. PMCID: PMC2656520. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
  37. Wilson B, Whelan K. Prebiotic inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides: definition, specificity, function, and application in gastrointestinal disorders. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Mar;32 Suppl 1:64–8. DOI: 10.1111/jgh.13700. PMID: 28244671. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
➕ Links & Resources

Recommended Products

Need help or would like to learn more?
View Dr. Ruscio’s additional resources

Get Help

Discussion

I care about answering your questions and sharing my knowledge with you. Leave a comment or connect with me on social media asking any health question you may have and I just might incorporate it into our next listener questions podcast episode just for you!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *