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The Ultimate Home Sauna Guide

Reaping the Health Benefits of Sauna at Home

I’ve been a devout sauna user for the past several years. I enjoy pushing myself out of my comfort zone, and time in my home sauna is one of my go-to ways to do that. But my daily sauna sessions are more than just a welcome challenge—research suggests they’re improving my health too.

If you don’t have a home sauna, you may be thinking, that sounds great but it’s not all that convenient to schedule time at the gym or spa to get a sauna session in. I’ve got good news—there are a wide range of options to fit most any budget, and you don’t need a lot of bells and whistles to reap the benefits of a home sauna. 

In this article, I share a spectrum of home sauna options, along with their benefits and potential drawbacks. Before I get into those specifics, let me share how sauna therapy may benefit your health and why you may want to consider investing in a home sauna.

Sauna Therapy 101

Sauna therapy exposes the body to high temperatures, with or without humidity. It’s been used as a part of ceremonial or spiritual practices for thousands of years but modern-day research suggests the increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia) may have health benefits. Before I get into what they are, let me share the two main types of sauna therapy:

  • Traditional Finnish-style sauna is the most studied and typically involves short exposures of 5–20 minutes at temperatures of 176–212 degrees Fahrenheit (℉) with dry air and periods of higher humidity achieved by pouring water onto heated rocks (steam sauna) [1]. 
  • Infrared sauna (also called dry sauna) uses infrared heaters (radiation emitters) at different wavelengths (usually ultra-low EMF) for 5–20 minutes at temperatures of 113–140 ℉. There’s typically no water or added humidity [1]. Waon therapy is a type of infrared sauna used in Japan—an infrared chamber warms the body for 15 minutes at 140 ℉, then the person is wrapped in thermal blankets to maintain the heat while lying down for 30–40 minutes before drinking water [1, 2].

As you can see, both types of sauna are used for about the same length of time. The difference lies in the temperature—traditional saunas are used at higher temps.

At this point, you may be wondering which type of sauna offers the greatest reward. Right now there’s not enough evidence to draw firm conclusions about the health benefits of infrared versus traditional—what we do know is that regular use of both types seems to be beneficial [1]. So, let’s explore some of the science-backed benefits of regular sauna use.

What are the Health Benefits of Sauna Use?

After many years as a clinician and researcher, I’ve learned to avoid jumping on the bandwagon when it comes to the latest biohacking trends. I prefer science-backed strategies that are fairly easy to put into practice, and sauna falls into this category. A lot of research suggests that regular sauna use is heart-healthy, but it may also be great for improving athletic performance, mental health, detoxification, joint health, and more. Let me share some of the research.

Many high-quality research trials suggest that sauna use (whether traditional or infrared) can offer valuable benefits for people with cardiovascular conditions [1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]:

A meta-analysis of 16 clinical trials showed that sauna therapy improved cardiovascular and physical function, especially in people with low cardiovascular function, within 30 minutes of use [3]. And a 2016 randomized controlled trial in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) showed that 2 weeks of Waon infrared therapy improved six-minute walking distances, reduced heart size, and improved disease status [6]. 

Additionally, a randomized controlled trial in sedentary adults with at least one cardiovascular disease risk factor showed exercise plus sauna for 8 weeks improved cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, systolic blood pressure, and cholesterol levels over and above what exercise alone accomplished [7].

In addition, observational studies show people who use saunas tend to have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular disease-related deaths [9, 10, 11, 12]. So, despite one randomized controlled trial that found no benefit of 8 weeks of traditional sauna on blood vessel function or blood pressure for people with coronary artery disease (CAD), sauna therapy may be beneficial for heart health overall [13].

Outside of heart health, sauna benefits may also include:

  • Reduced pain and stiffness [14, 15, 16]
  • Improved physical performance and flexibility [17, 18]
  • Improved heat tolerance [19, 20, 21]
  • Improved depression and mood [22, 23]
  • Improved detoxification [24, 25, 26]
  • Improved health and well-being in people with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) [23, 27
  • Increased exhale volume in patients with COPD [28]
  • Reduced risk of psychosis, dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease [29, 30]
  • Reduced risk of inflammation [31]

You may have heard that sauna also aids in weight loss. Sauna use may increase calorie burn but we still don’t have clear evidence on whether this translates into meaningful weight loss [32, 33]. So stay tuned—as research findings are published, we may get a more solid answer.

It’s easy to assume that the benefits of sauna are mostly related to the removal of toxins through sweat. But we can’t attribute sauna benefits just to sweating. Sauna may impart its advantages by increasing the bioavailability of nitric oxide to blood vessels, activating heat shock proteins, and improving immune system function. Sauna use may also release endorphins, promote relaxation, and alter the stress response [1].

Now that I’ve given you the condensed version of what sauna is and its potential health benefits, let me dive into the various home sauna options.

Key Takeaways: Research suggests both traditional and infrared saunas offer advantages for heart and mental health, athletic performance, detoxification, and more. Session time is typically 5–20 minutes, but traditional saunas are used at higher temperatures.

What’s the Best Home Sauna?

When it comes to incorporating therapies like sauna into a daily routine, it may be best to make it as seamless as possible. Chances are, if you have to make a reservation and drive across town to the gym or a spa to use a sauna, it may not happen all that often. I’m a fan of keeping things simple—if you want to reap all the rewards of regular sauna use, a home sauna may be something to consider. 

While it may seem out of reach, there are a lot of options for incorporating sauna therapy at home. Here are some factors to consider when making your decision:

  • How much space do you have?
  • Do you need a one-person sauna or a sauna that fits two people, or more?
  • Will it be an indoor sauna or an outdoor sauna?
  • Do you prefer a traditional or infrared sauna?
  • What’s your budget? 

Home sauna options tend to fall into three categories: Pre-built, DIY, and portable. All of these have benefits and potential drawbacks, so here’s a table detailing each: 

Type of Sauna Benefits Potential Drawbacks
Pre-built Traditional Finnish Sauna or Infrared Sauna 
  • Simple set-up
  • Customizable
  • Durable
  • More research
  • Not portable
  • Tends to be the most expensive (starting around $2000)
  • Requires more space
  • May require an electrician
  • Longer pre-heating time
DIY Traditional Finnish or Infrared Sauna
  • Customizable
  • Durable
  • More research
  • Less expensive than pre-built options (starting around $1000)
  • Not portable
  • More expensive than portable saunas or sauna blankets
  • Requires more space
  • May be time-consuming to build
  • May require an electrician
  • Longer pre-heating time
Portable Sauna
  • Easy assembly and transport
  • Easy to store 
  • Less expensive (starting around $150)
  • No electrician needed
  • Shorter pre-heating time
  • May not maintain as consistent a temperature
  • Not as customizable
  • Not as durable as a DIY or pre-built sauna
Sauna Blankets
  • Portable, foldable
  • Easy to storeLess expensive (starting around $150)
  • No electrician needed
  • Shorter pre-heating time
  • Not as much research on health benefits
  • May need longer sessions—typically 30–60 minutes
  • Not as durable as a DIY or pre-built sauna

As you can see, there are options to fit just about any preference and budget here. Traditional and infrared saunas are normally made with solid wood (Canadian hemlock wood, red cedar, and basswood) and use carbon heaters, electric heaters, or ceramic sauna heaters. 

When it comes to infrared saunas, far infrared saunas are the most common, but some models offer full spectrum with near and mid-infrared heat, too. Higher-end saunas offer sound systems, backrests, LED lighting, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi capabilities, remote-controlled chromotherapy lighting, sauna accessories, and more. The options for creating your own home spa experience are really pretty amazing.

If you love to work with your hands and have the space, you may want to order a sauna kit or build your own traditional (Finnish) or infrared sauna. It’s a great way to save some money and customize your sauna experience. Just make sure to check your local zoning and building codes before you get started to make sure you’re in compliance. 

If you’re not as handy or just want to buy something that needs minimal assembly, Sunlighten is a company I’ve partnered with. They offer a range of infrared saunas, including 2-person infrared saunas (and even larger), smaller ones to fit in a large bathroom, and portable ones that can be set up on the floor. 

And finally, if you need something smaller and less expensive, a portable sauna (like a portable infrared sauna, steam sauna tent with zippers, or portable personal steam sauna) or infrared sauna blanket may be perfect for you. The sites I’ve linked offer independent expert reviews and allow you to compare what’s available in these categories to help you make the right decision for you.

While a home sauna is a great choice for enhancing your other health and wellness habits, I want to stress the importance of sauna safety and share the circumstances where sauna use may be contraindicated. 

Key Takeaways: Home saunas come in three main forms—DIY, pre-built, and portable, ranging in price from $150 to $2000. It’s important to consider how much space you have, your budget, and the benefits and potential drawbacks of each type when making your home sauna decision.

Home Sauna: Safety Considerations

It appears that regular sauna use is well-tolerated by most people, but it doesn’t come without some potential risks [1]. In clinical settings, the greatest intensity of adverse effects has been in people with chronic fatigue syndrome, chronic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis—all of which are associated with an abnormal inflammatory and immune system response [1]. 

Here are some of the side effects that have been reported from traditional and infrared sauna use in the clinical setting:

  • Mild to moderate heat discomfort and intolerance [15, 26, 27, 34
  • Low blood pressure and light-headedness [1]
  • Temporary leg pain [35]
  • Breathing issues [1, 36]
  • Claustrophobia [37]

Outside of the clinical setting, sauna use has been associated with burns and eye irritation, rapid deterioration of damaged muscles (rhabdomyolysis), cardiac events, fainting, falling, heatstroke, lung issues, and death [1]. These sound extreme and my intention is not to frighten or discourage you from home sauna therapy. But it’s important to be aware of potential risks and ways to avoid them. 

You may want to consider these general guidelines for safe sauna use:

  1. Do not mix sauna therapy and alcohol—half of the deaths related to sauna use involve alcohol [1].
  2. Focus on hydration before and after a sauna session.
  3. Start off with 5 minutes and gradually increase the length of your session as you get more acclimated to heat therapy.
  4. Immediately get out of the sauna if you feel ill, and seek medical attention if needed.
  5. Avoid using a home sauna when you’re alone.

To round out this discussion on home sauna safety, the following groups should avoid sauna use unless they’re in a monitored clinical environment [38]:

  • Respiratory disease
  • Uncontrolled high or low blood pressure
  • Coagulation disorders that prevent proper blood clotting, such as hemophilia, Von Willebrand disease, clotting factor deficiencies, hypercoagulable states, and deep venous thrombosis
  • Skin diseases
  • Heart diseases
  • Pregnancy
  • Acute inflammation
  • Cachexia, or severe weight loss and muscle loss related to a disease

Key Takeaways: Home sauna is generally well-tolerated, but it’s important to practice safe sauna use by avoiding alcohol, focusing on hydration, and gradually increasing session time. Certain groups of people, like pregnant women and those with heart and skin diseases, should avoid sauna without medical supervision.  

Relax and Rejuvenate with a Home Sauna

Saunas have been used for centuries in ceremonial and spiritual practices. We now have research supporting their use for everything from heart health and detox to mood and inflammation. 

You may think sauna therapy is out of reach if you can’t make it to the gym or a spa—think again! The wide range of home sauna options (DIY, pre-built, or portable) has made it much easier to reap the mental and physical benefits of heat therapy. 

Sauna is generally well-tolerated, but it’s important to practice safety by avoiding alcohol during your session, starting out slowly, focusing on hydration, and always listening to your body’s signals. 

If you’d like to learn more about health and wellness, and how to incorporate the most impactful strategies into your daily routine, contact us for an appointment at the Ruscio Institute for Functional Health. We’d be honored to partner with you on your health journey.

The Ruscio Institute has developed a range of high-quality formulations to help our patients and audience. If you’re interested in learning more about these products, please click here. Note that there are many other options available, and we encourage you to research which products may be right for you.

➕ References

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