If you’re a woman with hormonal trouble, you’re not alone. It’s estimated that 80% of women will have some form of hormonal imbalance at some point in their lives . Hormonal imbalance in women can include garden variety women’s health problems like PMS, to more serious conditions like PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) or endometriosis.
In this article, let’s explore the symptoms of hormonal imbalance, the causes and consequences of hormonal imbalance in women, and how to restore balance.
Signs and Symptoms of Hormonal Imbalance
Hormonal imbalance isn’t just about periods and PMS. The most common symptoms are those having to do with the menstrual cycle, fertility, or menopause. These include mood swings or irritability, cramps, digestive symptoms like constipation or diarrhea, cravings, difficulty getting pregnant, hot flashes, or insomnia. But hormones are also a possible culprit for many other symptoms and conditions, including thyroid disorders.
If you are experiencing many of these signs and symptoms together, chances are you have some kind of hormonal imbalance.
What Are Normal Hormone Levels for Women?
If we’re going to discuss hormonal imbalance, we have to start with some idea of what’s normal. Your normal sex hormone levels depend on which stage of life or what phase of your menstrual cycle you are in. There are three main hormonal states throughout a woman’s life:
Each of these stages has normal levels of various hormones, which fluctuate from time to time. Let’s consider each stage and what normal levels of hormones look like in each stage.
Menstruation (Reproductive) Phase
Around the age of 12, women begin having monthly periods, indicating that their bodies can bear children. These periods, called menstruation, reflect a normal monthly fluctuation of hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
Under the direction of the pituitary gland, these hormones rise and fall throughout each month. This triggers the ovaries to release an egg (ovulation), followed approximately 14 days later by a period, or a pregnancy.
Menstruation generally continues monthly throughout the reproductive years of a woman’s life unless she becomes pregnant or experiences high levels of stress or severe nutritional deficiencies.
Normal serum lab reference range levels of estrogen can vary widely during the phases of your monthly cycle, from 15 to 350 pg/mL . Progesterone levels also vary during each monthly cycle, between 0.89 ng/mL and 24 ng/mL .
Sometime around the late 30s to early 40s, these monthly hormone cycles begin to wane. Menstrual cycles may become slightly shorter or longer, and premenstrual symptoms may intensify. These changes happen as levels of estrogen and progesterone begin to decrease. Many perimenopause symptoms are a result of changing ratios of estrogen and progesterone. Perimenopause continues until you begin to skip periods.
Normal reference ranges for estrogen and progesterone during perimenopause are similar to those during the menstruation phase of life but may be more erratic or less consistent. Perimenopause typically begins in the late 30s or early 40s and continues until approximately age 50 or 55, when menopause begins.
Once you begin to skip periods or experience much greater lengths of time between cycles, you are going through the menopause phase. Menopause is complete when your periods cease for 12 months .
Completing the process of menopause often comes with a number of symptoms, including frequent hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, weight gain around the middle, and increased mood swings .
Once menopause is completed, estrogen and progesterone levels are far lower than they were during your menstruation phase of life. The normal serum reference range for estrogen post menopause is less than 10 pg/mL  and less than or equal to 0.20 ng/mL for progesterone .
Hormone Imbalance in Women
Sex hormone imbalances can be a result of deficiencies or excesses of particular hormones or the wrong ratios of certain hormones.
Estrogen is responsible for your female sex characteristics and your reproductive function . It influences your uterine lining, ovulation, menstruation , and breastfeeding .
Estrogen also plays other important roles in women’s health. Estrogen:
Many common hormonal imbalances are caused by “estrogen dominance,” which is an excess of estrogen relative to progesterone. This includes perimenopause symptoms such as headaches, mood swings, and increased bloating, reproductive cancers, infertility, and PCOS [10 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]. A woman can have both low estrogen levels and estrogen dominance.
Estrogen deficiency can cause symptoms too. Mood-related premenstrual symptoms are often the result of fluctuating estrogen levels . As you enter perimenopause and menopause, estrogen levels fall, leading to common menopausal symptoms . Low levels of estrogen are also linked to increased abdominal fat, obesity, and metabolic syndromes .
Progesterone is a counterbalance to estrogen and also plays a key role in menstruation. It helps prepare the lining of your uterus to support a fertilized egg each month. If no egg arrives, progesterone levels fall, triggering a menstrual period . Progesterone also helps balance your nervous system .
As women begin to ovulate less frequently and transition to perimenopause, progesterone levels begin to fall. This natural decrease of progesterone is one of the causes of perimenopause symptoms such as irritability, mood swings, and insomnia [13 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source, 14 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]. It is also one of the causes of estrogen dominance.
Androgens (‘Male’ Hormones)
Though androgens are generally thought of as male hormones, women need them too, though in smaller amounts. The androgen hormones testosterone and DHEA (the precursor to testosterone) are responsible for sex drive, motivation, and play a role in female fertility . Low levels of androgens can cause low libido.
Excess androgen levels can cause excess unwanted hair growth, acne, oily hair, menstrual irregularities, male characteristics (like a deep voice), and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) . Keeping testosterone levels balanced is just as important for women as for men.
Though not sex hormones, thyroid hormones are worth mentioning, because the vast majority of thyroid patients are women [16 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source, 17 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]. Thyroid hormones are used by every cell in the body. They not only help regulate body temperature, energy production, digestive function, body weight, and nervous system function, but thyroid hormones have a direct effect on fertility . An underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) or overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) can cause symptoms, including insomnia, depression and anxiety, weight gain, and digestive symptoms.
Causes of Hormonal Imbalance in Women
The two most common causes of hormonal imbalance in women are gut imbalances and stress. Let’s explore how gut conditions and stress can affect hormones.
The Gut-Hormone Connection
If you’ve experienced an increase in symptoms like constipation or diarrhea with the shifting tides of the menstrual cycle, you’re not alone. Research suggests that gut health affects hormonal health and vice versa.
The three primary sex hormones — estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone — are all made from dietary cholesterol, a dietary fat [6, 12, 15]. If your fat digestion is compromised by gut inflammation, poor gallbladder, or pancreatic function, or if you eat a diet too low in fat, you may have trouble producing enough hormones.
There is some early evidence to suggest that the gut microbiome plays a key role in the detoxification and metabolism of hormones, particularly estrogen [24 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source, 25 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]. Gut bacteria produce an enzyme called beta-glucoronidase, which breaks estrogens down into their active forms [24 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source]. Gut dysbiosis may impair this normal process, and lead to estrogen dominance, or other estrogen-related conditions.
Additionally, hormone-related health conditions such as PCOS, obesity, endometriosis, cardiovascular disease, and breast cancer are associated with low bacterial diversity in the digestive tract . All of this strongly suggests that there is a two-way relationship between gut and hormone health and that improving gut health can improve your hormone symptoms.
The Stress-Hormone Connection
Hormones are quite sensitive to the effects of stress. If your body were an orchestra, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland (two small endocrine organs near the brain), would be the conductor, telling all your various parts what to do and when. Constant stress can derail sex hormone levels by disrupting the function of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, thereby disrupting your digestion and sex hormone production [27 Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source].
Additionally, sex hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone are partly made by the adrenal glands [5, 12, 15]. Constant stress levels may rob the raw materials your body would use for sex hormones to produce stress hormones.
This is true whether your stress is from external factors, like a job you don’t like, or internal stressors, like frequent blood sugarfluctuations or gut infections and inflammation.
Balancing stress is a key strategy for improving hormonal imbalance.
Rebalancing Female Hormones
Even though your endocrine system is complex, correcting hormonal imbalance is relatively easy. Focus on nudging your hormones into balance by:
Improving your gut health
Taking well-studied herbal remedies
The conventional medical advice for balancing female hormones is most often birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which can come with unwanted side effects or health risks. Most of this overcomplicates the matter and doesn’t address the real cause of hormonal imbalances. Natural solutions for hormonal imbalance are simple and effective.
Optimize Digestion, Blood Sugar, and Gut Health
Optimizing your digestion, blood sugar, and gut microbiome can pay big dividends for your hormonal health. Here are two ways to support your gut and hormonal health:
And because adequate dietary fat is required to produce hormones, optimizing fat digestion with a digestive enzyme that contains lipase (the enzyme that supports fat digestion) may support hormonal health.
Getting your stress under control is key to balancing your hormones. Reducing stress can include things like therapy, relaxation techniques, exercise, unplugging periodically, or doing things you love. Find something you love that you can do sustainably, and get committed to it.
And though it may not seem like blood sugar has anything to do with it, frequently fluctuating blood sugar levels are perceived by your body as stress, as can over exercising. Make sure your eating and exercise habits support your health.
Balancing Hormones with Herbs
Often, all that’s needed to rebalance your hormones are some herbs that have good evidence behind them to gently nudge your endocrine system into balance, along with attention to your diet and your stress.
Very often, gently encouraging the hormonal system to rebalance with health-affirming action is all that’s needed to improve hormonal imbalance.
The Bottom Line
No woman needs to be a prisoner of hormonal imbalance. Though hormone symptoms can make life miserable, they are relatively easy to rebalance with some simple attention to eating a healthy, anti-inflammatory diet, encouraging a healthy gut microbiome, and managing your stress. You can also nudge your hormones toward health with the tried and tested herbal formulas.
Hey everyone. I’d like to thank Athletic Greens for making this podcast possible. And if you’re like me, you may sometimes struggle with getting in enough nutrient dense foods. One thing that I’ve really appreciated about Athletic Greens’ AG1 is not only are they the best tasting one that I’ve had to date. They also help ensure that I’m getting adequate nutrition and really hitting the mark regarding nutrient density. And I’ve been using them every morning, pretty much every morning, as part of my morning shake.
Now, one scoop of AG1 contains 75 vitamins minerals and whole foods sourced ingredients, including a multivitamin, a multimineral, a probiotic, and a green super food blend all in one serving.
The other thing I really like about the company is Athletic Greens continues to improve this one holistic formula based upon the latest research. And they’ve produced 53 improvements in their formula over the past decade, which is pretty remarkable and a hat tip to them for that commitment. So I highly recommend Athletic Greens as part of your daily routine. And right now, if you visit athleticgreens.com/Ruscio, you can get a free one year supply of vitamin D and five free Athletic Greens or AG1 travel packs. Again, visit athleticgreens.com/Ruscio to really cover your bases for a well-rounded immune support vis-à-vis AG1, and that one year supply of vitamin D.
Sunita Khatri. Hormonal Imbalance In Women Over Fifty. Women’s Health, Steady Health. 2018.
Zhou Z, Zhang L, Ding M, Luo Z, Yuan S, Bansal MB, Gilkeson G, Lang R, Jiang W. Estrogen decreases tight junction protein ZO-1 expression in human primary gut tissues. Clin Immunol. 2017 Oct;183:174-180. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2017.08.019. Epub 2017 Sep 1. PMID: 28867253; PMCID: PMC5673541.
Roomruangwong C, Carvalho AF, Geffard M, Maes M. The menstrual cycle may not be limited to the endometrium but also may impact gut permeability. Acta Neuropsychiatr. 2019 Dec;31(6):294-304. doi: 10.1017/neu.2019.30. Epub 2019 Oct 14. PMID: 31364524. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Ong M, Peng J, Jin X, Qu X. Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Optimal Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Am J Chin Med. 2017;45(3):405-422. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X17500252. Epub 2017 Mar 30. PMID: 28359195. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Lizcano F, Guzmán G. Estrogen Deficiency and the Origin of Obesity during Menopause. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:757461. doi: 10.1155/2014/757461. Epub 2014 Mar 6. PMID: 24734243; PMCID: PMC3964739.
Joffe H, de Wit A, Coborn J, Crawford S, Freeman M, Wiley A, Athappilly G, Kim S, Sullivan KA, Cohen LS, Hall JE. Impact of Estradiol Variability and Progesterone on Mood in Perimenopausal Women With Depressive Symptoms. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Mar 1;105(3):e642–50. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgz181. PMID: 31693131; PMCID: PMC7075107. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Prior JC. Progesterone for Symptomatic Perimenopause Treatment – Progesterone politics, physiology and potential for perimenopause. Facts Views Vis Obgyn. 2011;3(2):109-20. PMID: 24753856; PMCID: PMC3987489. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Łacka K, Fraczek MM. Podział i etiopatogeneza nadczynności tarczycy [Classification and etiology of hyperthyroidism]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2014 Mar;36(213):206-11. Polish. PMID: 24779222. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Meleine M, Matricon J. Gender-related differences in irritable bowel syndrome: potential mechanisms of sex hormones. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jun 14;20(22):6725-43. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i22.6725. PMID: 24944465; PMCID: PMC4051914. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Moore J, Barlow D, Jewell D, Kennedy S. Do gastrointestinal symptoms vary with the menstrual cycle? Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998 Dec;105(12):1322-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.1998.tb10014.x. PMID: 9883927. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Nuriel-Ohayon M, Neuman H, Ziv O, Belogolovski A, Barsheshet Y, Bloch N, Uzan A, Lahav R, Peretz A, Frishman S, Hod M, Hadar E, Louzoun Y, Avni O, Koren O. Progesterone Increases Bifidobacterium Relative Abundance during Late Pregnancy. Cell Rep. 2019 Apr 16;27(3):730-736.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.075. PMID: 30995472. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Edwards SM, Cunningham SA, Dunlop AL, Corwin EJ. The Maternal Gut Microbiome During Pregnancy. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2017 Nov/Dec;42(6):310-317. doi: 10.1097/NMC.0000000000000372. PMID: 28787280; PMCID: PMC5648614.
Sasaki H, Kawamura K, Kawamura T, Odamaki T, Katsumata N, Xiao JZ, Suzuki N, Tanaka M. Distinctive subpopulations of the intestinal microbiota are present in women with unexplained chronic anovulation. Reprod Biomed Online. 2019 Apr;38(4):570-578. doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2018.12.026. Epub 2018 Dec 22. PMID: 30773302. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Baker JM, Al-Nakkash L, Herbst-Kralovetz MM. Estrogen-gut microbiome axis: Physiological and clinical implications. Maturitas. 2017 Sep;103:45-53. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2017.06.025. Epub 2017 Jun 23. PMID: 28778332. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Fuhrman BJ, Feigelson HS, Flores R, Gail MH, Xu X, Ravel J, Goedert JJ. Associations of the fecal microbiome with urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Dec;99(12):4632-40. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-2222. PMID: 25211668; PMCID: PMC4255131. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Goedert JJ, Jones G, Hua X, Xu X, Yu G, Flores R, Falk RT, Gail MH, Shi J, Ravel J, Feigelson HS. Investigation of the association between the fecal microbiota and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a population-based case-control pilot study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015 Jun 1;107(8):djv147. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djv147. PMID: 26032724; PMCID: PMC4554191.
Tilbrook AJ, Turner AI, Clarke IJ. Effects of stress on reproduction in non-rodent mammals: the role of glucocorticoids and sex differences. Rev Reprod. 2000 May;5(2):105-13. doi: 10.1530/ror.0.0050105. PMID: 10864855. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Whalen KA, McCullough ML, Flanders WD, Hartman TJ, Judd S, Bostick RM. Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Balance in Adults. J Nutr. 2016 Jun;146(6):1217-26. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.224048. Epub 2016 Apr 20. PMID: 27099230; PMCID: PMC4877627. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Olendzki BC, Silverstein TD, Persuitte GM, Ma Y, Baldwin KR, Cave D. An anti-inflammatory diet as treatment for inflammatory bowel disease: a case series report. Nutr J. 2014 Jan 16;13:5. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-5. PMID: 24428901; PMCID: PMC3896778. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Masharani U, Sherchan P, Schloetter M, Stratford S, Xiao A, Sebastian A, Nolte Kennedy M, Frassetto L. Metabolic and physiologic effects from consuming a hunter-gatherer (Paleolithic)-type diet in type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Aug;69(8):944-8. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.39. Epub 2015 Apr 1. PMID: 25828624. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Jönsson T, Granfeldt Y, Ahrén B, Branell UC, Pålsson G, Hansson A, Söderström M, Lindeberg S. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2009 Jul 16;8:35. doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-8-35. PMID: 19604407; PMCID: PMC2724493. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Gibson PR, Shepherd SJ. Evidence-based dietary management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms: The FODMAP approach. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Feb;25(2):252-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.06149.x. PMID: 20136989. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Gibson PR, Shepherd SJ. Food choice as a key management strategy for functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 May;107(5):657-66; quiz 667. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2012.49. Epub 2012 Apr 10. PMID: 22488077. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Shamasbi SG, Ghanbari-Homayi S, Mirghafourvand M. The effect of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on hormonal and inflammatory indices in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Nutr. 2020 Mar;59(2):433-450. doi: 10.1007/s00394-019-02033-1. Epub 2019 Jun 29. PMID: 31256251. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Rogha M, Esfahani MZ, Zargarzadeh AH. The efficacy of a synbiotic containing Bacillus Coagulans in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2014 Summer;7(3):156-63. PMID: 25120896; PMCID: PMC4129566. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Majeed M, Nagabhushanam K, Natarajan S, Sivakumar A, Ali F, Pande A, Majeed S, Karri SK. Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 supplementation in the management of diarrhea predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: a double blind randomized placebo controlled pilot clinical study. Nutr J. 2016 Feb 27;15:21. doi: 10.1186/s12937-016-0140-6. PMID: 26922379; PMCID: PMC4769834. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Khalighi AR, Khalighi MR, Behdani R, Jamali J, Khosravi A, Kouhestani Sh, Radmanesh H, Esmaeelzadeh S, Khalighi N. Evaluating the efficacy of probiotic on treatment in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)–a pilot study. Indian J Med Res. 2014 Nov;140(5):604-8. PMID: 25579140; PMCID: PMC4311312. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Ibarra A, Latreille-Barbier M, Donazzolo Y, Pelletier X, Ouwehand AC. Effects of 28-day Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 supplementation on colonic transit time and gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with functional constipation: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, and dose-ranging trial. Gut Microbes. 2018;9(3):236-251. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2017.1412908. Epub 2018 Feb 8. PMID: 29227175; PMCID: PMC6219592. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Ford AC, Quigley EM, Lacy BE, Lembo AJ, Saito YA, Schiller LR, Soffer EE, Spiegel BM, Moayyedi P. Efficacy of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics in irritable bowel syndrome and chronic idiopathic constipation: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014 Oct;109(10):1547-61; quiz 1546, 1562. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2014.202. Epub 2014 Jul 29. PMID: 25070051. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
McFarland LV, Dublin S. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 May 7;14(17):2650-61. doi: 10.3748/wjg.14.2650. PMID: 18461650; PMCID: PMC2709042. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Martoni CJ, Srivastava S, Leyer GJ. Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 and Bifidobacterium lactis UABla-12 Improve Abdominal Pain Severity and Symptomology in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2020 Jan 30;12(2):363. doi: 10.3390/nu12020363. PMID: 32019158; PMCID: PMC7071206. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Whelan K. Probiotics and prebiotics in the management of irritable bowel syndrome: a review of recent clinical trials and systematic reviews. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011 Nov;14(6):581-7. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e32834b8082. PMID: 21892075. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
American College of Gastroenterology Task Force on Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Brandt LJ, Chey WD, Foxx-Orenstein AE, Schiller LR, Schoenfeld PS, Spiegel BM, Talley NJ, Quigley EM. An evidence-based position statement on the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Jan;104 Suppl 1:S1-35. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2008.122. PMID: 19521341. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Ishihara M, Ito Y, Nakakita T, Maehama T, Hieda S, Yamamoto K, Ueno N. [Clinical effect of gamma-oryzanol on climacteric disturbance -on serum lipid peroxides (author’s transl)]. Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 1982 Feb;34(2):243-51. Japanese. PMID: 7061906. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Dietz BM, Hajirahimkhan A, Dunlap TL, Bolton JL. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health. Pharmacol Rev. 2016 Oct;68(4):1026-1073. doi: 10.1124/pr.115.010843. PMID: 27677719; PMCID: PMC5050441. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Ghazanfarpour M, Sadeghi R, Abdolahian S, Latifnejad Roudsari R. The efficacy of Iranian herbal medicines in alleviating hot flashes: A systematic review. Int J Reprod Biomed. 2016 Mar;14(3):155-66. PMID: 27294213; PMCID: PMC4899762. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Kupfersztain C, Rotem C, Fagot R, Kaplan B. The immediate effect of natural plant extract, Angelica sinensis and Matricaria chamomilla (Climex) for the treatment of hot flushes during menopause. A preliminary report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2003;30(4):203-6. PMID: 14664413. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Jiang K, Jin Y, Huang L, Feng S, Hou X, Du B, Zheng J, Li L. Black cohosh improves objective sleep in postmenopausal women with sleep disturbance. Climacteric. 2015;18(4):559-67. doi: 10.3109/13697137.2015.1042450. Epub 2015 May 22. PMID: 26000551. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Ishihara M. Effect of gamma-oryzanol on serum lipid peroxide level and clinical symptoms of patients with climacteric disturbances. Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol. 1984 Sep;10(3):317-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.1984.tb00693.x. PMID: 6525087. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Zern TL, Wood RJ, Greene C, West KL, Liu Y, Aggarwal D, Shachter NS, Fernandez ML. Grape polyphenols exert a cardioprotective effect in pre- and postmenopausal women by lowering plasma lipids and reducing oxidative stress. J Nutr. 2005 Aug;135(8):1911-7. doi: 10.1093/jn/135.8.1911. PMID: 16046716. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Wong RHX, Evans HM, Howe PRC. Resveratrol supplementation reduces pain experience by postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2017 Aug;24(8):916-922. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000861. PMID: 28350759. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Evans HM, Howe PR, Wong RH. Effects of Resveratrol on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Cerebrovascular Function in Post-Menopausal Women; A 14-Week Randomised Placebo-Controlled Intervention Trial. Nutrients. 2017 Jan 3;9(1):27. doi: 10.3390/nu9010027. PMID: 28054939; PMCID: PMC5295071. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Moini Jazani A, Hamdi K, Tansaz M, Nazemiyeh H, Sadeghi Bazargani H, Fazljou SMB, Nasimi Doost Azgomi R. Herbal Medicine for Oligomenorrhea and Amenorrhea: A Systematic Review of Ancient and Conventional Medicine. Biomed Res Int. 2018 Mar 18;2018:3052768. doi: 10.1155/2018/3052768. PMID: 29744355; PMCID: PMC5878906. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Maleki-Saghooni N, Karimi FZ, Behboodi Moghadam Z, Mirzaii Najmabadi K. The effectiveness and safety of Iranian herbal medicines for treatment of premenstrual syndrome: A systematic review. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2018 Mar-Apr;8(2):96-113. PMID: 29632841; PMCID: PMC5885324. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Verkaik S, Kamperman AM, van Westrhenen R, Schulte PFJ. The treatment of premenstrual syndrome with preparations of Vitex agnus castus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Aug;217(2):150-166. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.02.028. Epub 2017 Feb 22. PMID: 28237870. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Cerqueira RO, Frey BN, Leclerc E, Brietzke E. Vitex agnus castus for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a systematic review. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2017 Dec;20(6):713-719. doi: 10.1007/s00737-017-0791-0. Epub 2017 Oct 23. PMID: 29063202. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Arentz S, Smith CA, Abbott J, Fahey P, Cheema BS, Bensoussan A. Combined Lifestyle and Herbal Medicine in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Randomized Controlled Trial. Phytother Res. 2017 Sep;31(9):1330-1340. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5858. Epub 2017 Jul 7. PMID: 28685911; PMCID: PMC5599989. Trusted SourcePubMedGo to source
Johnson A, Roberts L, Elkins G. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Menopause. J Evid Based Integr Med. 2019 Jan-Dec;24:2515690X19829380. doi: 10.1177/2515690X19829380. PMID: 30868921; PMCID: PMC6419242.
I care about answering your questions and sharing my knowledge with you. Leave a comment or connect with me on social media asking any health question you may have and I just might incorporate it into our next listener questions podcast episode just for you!
Transform your health
Every product is science-based, validated by real-world use, and personally vetted by Dr. Ruscio, DNM, DC.